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Orderly Book of Lieutenant General John Burgoyne from His Entry into the State of New York Until His Surrender at Saratoga, 16 Oct., 1777

From The Original Manuscript Deposited At Washington's Head Quarters, Newburgh, N. Y.

Edited By E. B. O'Callaghan, M. D.

Albany, N.Y.: J. Munsell, 78 State Street.



To Robert Townsend, Esq. of Syracuse, N.Y.




THE Battle of Saratoga has always attracted a large share ot intelligent and interested attention. Its important results have induced a recent English author to class it, preeminently, among the Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World'.



1 Nor can any military event be said to have exercised more important influence on the future fortunes of mankind than the complete defeat of Burgoyne's Expedition in 1777; a defeat which rescued the revolted colonifts from certain subjection, and which, by inducing the courts of France and Spain to attack England in their behalf, insured the independence of the United States, and the formation of that transatlantic power which not only America, but both Europe and Asia now see and feel. — Creasy, p. 312, Am. ed.



In our own country, its name still stirs the blood, warmly and proudly, in the popular heart. The interest that thus attaches to the subject has led to the publication of numerous official, and other Documents, relating to the Expedition of Burgoyne, and its unsuccessful termination. The Publisher feels that he cannot err, in the opinion that that interest will yet justify an addition to our authentic printed memorials of these events; and, in that belief, he takes much pleasure in laying before the Publick the Orderly Book of General Burgoyne' s Expedition.


The Leader of this memorable Expedition has published to the World his Narrative of the Invasion, and his Apology or its failure. The present official programme of his daily movements, daguerreotyping, as it were, the occurrences and events of the march, almost makes us spectators of the changing scene. We look not through media, colored by the incense of partiaity, or darkened by the smoke of prejudice, but, viewing these events of the past in their own truthful light, we are enabled to exercise our individual judgment, and form conclusions altogether our own. The very nature of an Orderly Book, its slrictly practical, almost commonplace character, gives a peculiar trustworthiness to the opinions formed from its perusal : and in cases like the present one, whether the verdct be of approval or of censure, we cannot doubt that it is both unbiassed and just.


In addressing. Sir, to you, the following pages, the Publisher would desire to make a public acknowledgment of his thanks for the interesl: you have shown in bringing this subject to his notice; and likewise for the many kind offices which a library rich in varied treasures of genius and art, a discriminating taste and profound historical research, have enabled you to render, in the course of his publication of books kindred to this in their antique style and historical subject.


J. M.


Albany, Oct. i860.





In presenting to the Public a volume containing mainly Orders issued from day to day, to an Army on its march, some apology may be deemed proper, were it not that the interests involved in the march of that Army were of such vast magnitude as not only to justify, but to exact the preservation of every record, however trivial and minute, of every well established incident and circumstance connected with its progress and operations.


The people of the Colonies had already been two years arrayed in hostility against England; the Declaration of Independence had been nearly twelve months before the world, yet so far from decided was the result of the contest, that no Court in Europe dared as yet to acknowledge that Independence, or to risk a Treaty with America.


It was at this season of gloom, uncertainty and doubt, when many good men already hesitated, and some had even despaired, that Great Britain gathered up her strength afresh, evoked her power at home and exerted her influence abroad, for one combined and overwhelming movement that would, she promised herself, forever crush the giant nation struggling to be born.


As Commander of the Northern Division of this movement, the ministry had selected an officer who had already distinguished himself in the field; whose merit, they admitted, it had been their care to cherish; discovering it in its growth and rewarding it in its progress by raising him above his seniors in the service.1



1 Speech of Lord North. Hansard's Par. Hist., xix, 1222.



John Burgoyne, the Officer in question, was a man not only of obscure birth, but even of doubtful parentage. He is said, upon what authority does not appear, to have been the illegitimate son of Lord Bingley. Be this as it may, his education was of the most liberal kind, and it is not improbable that he was either destined for, or had resolved upon, the profession of arms, at a very early period. While yet a subaltern, without any fortune but his sword, he had the rare good luck to engage the affections of, and run away with, Lady Charlotte Stanley, youngest daughter of Edward, l0th Earl of Derby, whom he married. This connexion secured doubtless for Burgoyne in after life, much of that favour to which his advancement in his profession was owing. He was commissioned Captain in the 11th Dragoons,14th June, 1756; and on the 10th of May, 1758, was raised to the brevet rank of Lieutenant Colonel. In the August of 1759,  appointed Lieutenant Colonel commandant of the 16th Light Dragoons. With this regiment he served in 1761, at Belleisle, where, during the siege of Palais, he was entrusted with a negotiation for an exchange of prisoners.


A more busy service awaited him upon his return home. Spain had now acceded to the family compact, and after vain endeavours to draw over Portugal from its alliance with England, had refolved to attack that country in the hope of an easy conquest : a hope which arofe from her convidtion of the weak and undisciplined state of the Portuguese army. In this exigency Great Britain hastened to the succour of an ally, who had preferred the chance of utter ruin to the shame of having violated her faith.


The troops destined for this service arrived in the Tagus on the 6th of May. They were immediately marched to join the Portuguefe army, under the command of the Count de la Lippe Buckeburg, and took the field in the course of July. The campaign had been commenced by the Spaniards on the side of Tras os Montes, in which province Miranda, Braganza, and some other towns, had fallen into their hands. They next resolved to proceed against Oporto, but this design was frustrated by the bravery of the peasants, who took possession of the defiles, and compelled the Spanish army to a disorderly retreat. Disappointed in this quarter the enemy turned their steps towards the province of Beira, and laid siege to the frontier town of Almeida, which, after a short defence, fell into their hands through the imbecility and cowardice of its governor. Their army now approached the Tagus, the only direction in which an invader can penetrate to the capital, all other access being rendered nearly, if not quite impracticable, by immense chains of mountains, and other natural obstructions.  


To second the operations of this army, by an incursion into Alemtejo, or by advancing on the opposite side of the Tagus, and thus to distract the attention of the Portuguese, already but too feeble in point of numbers, a body of troops was beginning to assemble in Spanish Estramadura, at the town of Valencia de Alcantara. It consisted at present of about 1200 men. Well knowing that if this force were suffered to increase, it would embarrass him very confiderably, the Count de la Lippe, who was encamped at Abrantes, formed the bold design of attacking and dispersing it before it assumed a more formidable aspect.


The execution of this plan was confided to Burgoyne, who then held the rank of Brigadier. No inconsiderable difficulties stood in the way of this enterprise; but the spirit of the commander was not of a nature to be depressed by such considerations. He crossed the Tagus, at midnight on the 23d, and with 400 of his own regiment, was joined as he advanced by one or two small detachments, and after a laborious march of more than fifteen leagues, performed through bad roads, and without halting, he arrived on the morning of the 26th at some distance from the town of Alcantara. His intention had been to surprise the place before break of day, but he now found that from the delay, occasioned by the ignorance of the guides, the dawn was at hand, and his scheme would be frustrated if he waited till his whole division could cooperate in the attack. He, therefore, boldly pushed forward with his dragoons alone. This audacity was favoured by fortune. At the head of his handful of soldiers he entered the town with such determined resolution, that the guards in the square were all killed or made prisoners before they could take arms, and the ends of the streets were secured after a trifling resistance. Some parties, having rallied, attempted to return to the charge; but their lives paid the forfeit of their temerity. A firing was for a Ihort time kept up from the windows. It was, however, put a flop to, by the menace of fetting the town in flames, at the four corners, if the doors and windows were not instantly thrown open. Parties were immediately sent out to pursue such of the enemy as had escaped into the country, and in this service their success was very considerable.


In this gallant action the lofs of the English was scarcely worthy of notice; while on the other hand, that of the Spaniards was remarkably severe. Many prisoners were taken, among whom was the Spanish general, and the regiment of Seville was totally destroyed. Three standards, with a large quantity of arms and ammunition, fell into the hands of the victors. In consequence of the strift discipline observed by the British, very little was suffered by the town or inhabitants. The generosity and gallantry of Burgoyne were indeed subjects of praise among the Spanish officers themselves. From the Count de la Lippe they received, in the public orders of the day, the highest encomiums.


All danger was thus at an end on the side of Alemtejo; but it was not so on the other bank of the Tagus, where their immense superiority of numbers enabled the Spaniards to obtain a footing, though but a trifling one, in Portuguese Estramadura, and make a somewhat nearer approach to the capital. Early in October they attacked the old Moorish castle of Villa Velha, and the defiles of St. Simon. The castle was, for a considerable time, supported across the river by Brigadier Burgoyne, who was ported near Nisla and the Tagus. It was, however, at last compelled to surrender, the enemy having contrived to turn the position. A body of two thousand Spaniards now encamped in the neighbourhood of Villa Velha. It was soon perceived by Burgoyne, that this corps, proud of its late successes, was a little more careless than was proper in the neighbourhood of a vigilant and enterprising adversary. For this unsoldier-like negligence he soon inflicted upon them an exemplary chastifement. Under his orders, Lieutenant Colonel Lee, afterwards a Major General in the Army of the American Revolution, crossed the Tagus on the night of the 5th of October, with a detachment of 350 Britifh soldiers, and succeeded in completely surprising the Spanish camp. A considerable slaughter took place, with a very trifling loss to the assailants. Some magazines were burned, six cannons spiked, and sixty artillery mules, and a large quantity of baggage taken. After this decisive blow, the detachment recrossed the Tagus, and resumed its original quarters, without interruption.


Here closed the campaign. Harrassed, dispirited, and reduced to almost one half of their original numbers, the Spanish troops retired within their own frontier. Peace was shortly after concluded between the belligerent powers, and the subject of this memoir returned to his own country, with the reputation of an enlightened, intrepid, and active officer. On the 8th of October, previously to his embarking for England, he had been raised to the rank of Colonel.


At the general election in 1761, he had been chocen member for Midhurst, and he accordingly, on his arrival from Portugal, took his seat in the Houfe of Commons. He does not, however, appear to have been, at this period, a very active member. On the 18th of March, 1762, he was appointed Colonel of the 16th Light Dragoons. At the election in 1768, he he was returned for the borough of Preston. Some circumstances arising from this event, and from his prefumed connection with the Duke of Grafton, drew upon him the hostiiity of Junius, who, in several of his letters, adverts to him in language of great severity. The same year he was appointed Governor of Fort William; and Major General in 1772.


In the debates of Parliament he now took a more frequent part than he had before done. The administration having accepted, in 1771, from the Spanish government, a very inadequate satisfaction for the insult which had been offered to Great Britain, by the seizure of the Falkland Islands, he arraigned their conduct in a speech of much eloquence and vigour. But his efforts, and those of his friends, were unavailing; an address approving the convention between tlie two powers was carried by a large majority.


The next year he was not less strenuous in endeavouring to detect and bring to punishment the corruption and delinquency which disgraced the characters ot those to whom authority had been delegated in the Eastern empire. It was on his motion that a committee was appointed "to inquire into the nature, state, and condition of the East India Company, and of the Britifh "aflfairs in the East Indies." His speech on this occasion is highly honourable to him, both as a man, and as an orator. As chairman of the committee, he found himfslf repeatedly called upon to defend the measures and intentions of himself and. his colleagues, and he was not backward in the performance of this duty.


But, amidst the pressure of senatorial and professional avocations, he found time for pursuits of a more light and amusing nature. A marriage took, place in June, 1774, between Edward, son of Lord Stanley, and Lady Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of the Duke of Hamilton. On this occasion a fete champetre was given at the Oaks, which in taste and splendour far exceeded every thing of the kind that had been feen before. The superintendence of the whole was committed to Burgoyne. It was for this festival that he wrote his first dramatic piece, entitled 'The Maid of the Oaks. This elegant comic entertainment was afterwards, with some additions, it is faid, from the pen of Garrick, successfully brought forward on the boards of Drury Lane Theatre. Nor has it yet lost its attractions with the public, though Mrs. Baddely and Mrs. Abingdon, the original repre- sentatives of Maria and Lady Bab Lardoon, have never been equalled by later performers of those characters.


His attention, however, was soon called off from letters to arms. He embarked in 1775, with Generals Howe and Clinton, for America, and arrived at Boston early in June.1 Some of the official papers issued there, at that period, are attributed to his pen. His stay this time in America was short, as he returned to England during the winter. But in the spring of 1776, he sailed for Canada, where he had fome fhare in affifting Sir Guy Carleton to expel the Americans, who had for many months held a footing in that province, and even reduced its capital, Quebec, to the greateft ex- tremity. The campaign being at an end, he again, at the close of the year, landed in his native country. During his absence in America he suffered the loss of his wife, Lady Charlotte Burgoyne, who died at Kensington Palace, on the 5th of June, 1776.



1 The subjoined Impromptu, was published at London, on the departure of these Brisih Generals for America:


"Behold the Cerberus the Atlantic plough !

"Her precious Cargo, Burgoyne, Clinton, Howe

"Bow ! wow ! wow !"



Government resolved to make, in the Summer of 1777, a decisive effort against the revolted Colonies. A large force was to penetrate toward Albany from Canada, by the way of the Lakes, while another confiderable body advanced up the Hudson's river, for the purpose of joining the Canadian army. By this means it was hoped that all communication would be cut off between the Northern and Southern Colonies, and that each of them, being left to its own means of defence, and attacked by superior numbers, would inevitably be reduced with little trouble. To distract; the attention of the enemy, a detachment was at the same time to attack Fort Stanwix on the Mohawk river.


On the first of September, 1776, Burgoyne was appointed Lieutenant General, preparatory to assuming command of this expedition. His opinion of, and dispofition towards the Americans, may be inferred from his speech already pronounced in Parliament on the motion for the Repeal of the Act imposing a Duty on Tea. He considered that America had been spoiled by too much indulgence; the independence of that country of the British legislature was in question, and he was ready to resist that proposition and to contend at any future time against such independence. The future here appealed to was at hand, and we shall now see what it had in store for the champion of Parliamentary Taxation.


His Army, numbering between seven and eight thousand men, set out from St. John's on the 14th of June, 1777, and encamped at the river Bouquet, on the west side of Lake Champlain, near Crown Point. At this place he met the Indians in congress, and, according to the usual custom, gave them a war feast. To repress their native barbarity, he addressed them in a speech, recommending humanity to the enemy, and promising rewards for prisoners, but assuring them that all claims they might make for scalps would be looked into with a very suspicious eye. His next step was to issue a Manifesto to the Americans, in which their hopes and fears were alternately worked upon, in order to induce their return to obedience.


Turgid, pompous and bombastic, this Proclamation instead of producing the effect desired, became the subject of ridicule, derision and satire, and instead of frightening the Americans, only gained for its author the soubriquet of Chrononbotonthologos. It was turned into Hudibrastic rhymes by, it is said, the witty [Francis] Hopkinson, who thus travestied the threats of the British General :


I will let loose the dogs of hell,

Ten thousand Indians, who shall yell,

And foam and tear, and grin and roar,

And drench their moccasins in gore :

To these I'll give full scope and play

From Ticonderog to Florida;

They'll scalp your heads and kick your shins,

And rip your -- , and flay your skins,

And of your ears be nimble croppers,

And make your thumbs tobacco-stoppers.

If after all these loving warnings,

My wishes and my bowels' yearnings,

You shall remain as deaf as adder,

Or grow with hostile rage the madder,

I swear by St. George and by St. Paul,  

I will exterminate you all.

Subscribed with my manual sign

To tell these presents — John Burgoyne."


Having made some stay at Crown Point, for the purpose of establishing a hospital and magazines, and for other necessary services, the army advanced towards Ticonderoga, which the Americans abandoned. Their retreat was discovered at the dawn of the 6th of July. A rapid pursuit was instantly begun, and continued with such vigour that their vessels were totally destroyed. Hopeless of making any stand at Skenesborough, the American troops retired, after destroying, as well as they could, the various works which had been raised for its defence.


At Skenesborough, General Burgoyne was compelled to wait several days for the arrival of tents, baggage, and provisions. While his Army remained here, it was incessantly employed in opening roads. Towards the end of July, it arrived near Fort Edward, which was abandoned by the Americans, who retired to Saratoga.


Here, nostwithstanding the most strenuous endeavours were used to forward the service, a halt of fifteen days was found indispenfable for the purpofe of bringing forward bateaux, provisions, and ammunition, from Fort Anne. Neither oxen nor horses were to be procured, and the country was besides inundated with continued rain. Intelligence was here received that Colonel St. Leger had begun the siege of Fort Stanwix. General Burgoyne, therefore, determined to cross the Hudson river. But, though every nerve had been strained, the provision in store was very trifling. A supply, however, must absolutely be obtained. The Americans had established a magazine at Bennington, and it was hoped that by surprising it, a large proportion of what was wanted might be secured. On this service Lieutenant Colonel Baum was dispatched, with about five hundred men. The British, at the same time, moved along the Hudson. and threw a bridge over it opposite Saratoga. Baum had not reached Bennington, when he received advice that the enemy were in great force at that place. He accordingly halted, and sent off to the English camp for assistance. It was dispatched, but before its arrival Baum had been attacked, and his whole party killed or made prisoners. Ignorant of his defeat, the detachment which had been sent to his fuccour continued to advance, until it was surrounded by the victorious Americans, and suffered very severely in making its retreat. Six hundred men were lost to the army by these two engagements. Shortly after, Colonel St. Leger was compelled to retire from before Fort Stanwix.


Nearly thirty days' provision having been collected, Burgoyne crossed the Hudson, about the middle of September, and encamped at Saratoga. The Americans were at Stillwater. The British advanced to attack them in that position, and an obstinate battle ensued, in which much honour, but no solid advantage, was gained by the assailants. The field of battle, it is true, remained in the possestion of the British, but nothing more, and it was dearly paid for by the fall of a number of brave men. Nothing could be done against the American camp, all approach to which was rendered impracticable by natural obstacles, as well as by numerous fortifications. Every day also swelled the force of the Americans, and lessened that of the British.


Still hoping that, by the approach of an army up the Hudson from New York, he should be enabled to accomplish the purpose of the campaign, General Burgoyne decided upon holding his position as long as possible. Great exertions were accordingly made to secure it by strong lines and redoubts.


But while the General was fufficiently occupied in front, by the American Army, a daring attempt was made to shut him up in the rear. From the head of the Connecticut river a body of fifteen hundred men marched, with the utmost secresy, and without being discovered, against Ticonderoga, and succeeded in surprising some of the outposts of that place. They made reiterated assaults upon the fortress itself, for four days; but, being every time repulsed, they at last retired.


The month of October opened, and no assistance was at hand to extricate Burgoyne from his perilous situation. He now found it expedient to put the troops upon a shorter allowance, and on the 7th of October, to make a movement to the right, to discover whether it was possible to open a passage forward, or, if that could not be done, at least to facilitate a retreat. This motion was also designed to cover a forage of the army.


Fifteen hundred men, with eight cannon and two howitzers, were destined for this purpofe. The General himself commanded them, and was seconded by some of his best officers. But Arnold, who had perceived how critical his situation would be if he were turned, did not wait to receive an attack; he quitted his position, and gave battle to the division which was advancing against him. Constantly reinforced by fresh battalions he succeeded, after a desperate conflict, in driving the British to their camp, which was immediately assaulted in various parts, and the Americans broke into the lines in that quarter which was defended by Colonel Breymann. An opening was thus made on the right and the rear.


The position being no longer tenable it was resolved to abandon it, and take post on the heights above the hospital, by which the front would be changed, and the Americans compelled to form a new dispofition. This delicate and dangerous movement was effected in the night without loss or disorder. Battle was next day offered to the Americans, whose movements obliged the British to leave their favourable ground, and retire towards Saratoga. By the morning of the tenth the whole of their Army had crossed the fords of the Fishkill near that place, and posted itself in a strong situation. It was followed there by the Americans, who took every step which could preclude the possibility of escape.


Far from all succour, surrounded in the most difficult of countries by an Army more than four times his own in numbers, provisions growing short, the regiments mouldering away, every part of the camp exposed to grape and rifle shot, and without power to compel the enemy to an action, Burgoyne assembled a council of war to deliberate upon the measures to be taken in so painful an exigency. Such were the circumstances of the case, that to advance, retreat, or engage, was equally impossible. The unanimous voice of the council, therefore, was for entering upon a negotiation. It was finally settled between the generals, that the British Army should march out of its camp with all the honours of war, and should be sent to Europe, on condition of not serving in America during the present war.


Thus terminated this attempt to crush the Independence of this country, and thus it was, amid the throes and thunders of battle, that the American nation was ushered victoriously into life, and baptized in blood on the field of Saratoga. The nations of Europe no longer hesitated to recognize its legitimacy, which France had the honour the first to acknowledge, on the 6th February, 1778.


The ideas hitherto entertained of the Americans by Gen. Burgoyne, now experienced a total revolution, and he declared that it would be impoffible for Britain to fucceed in her views, and that he fhould, on his return to England, recommend the recognition of their Independence.


He arrived early in 1778 in that country, whither the news of the Saratoga convention had preceded him, and had been received by Ministers with the most bitter vexation. Pressed already beyond endurance by the opposition, they were well aware that this additional heavy misfortune would be urged against them in Parliament with all the powers of argument and eloquence. To throw the blame on the General was the best means of escaping reproach that suggested itself to their minds. No open attack was indeed immediately made in either house, but insinuations and hints were not spared.


An audience with his Sovereign was requested, and refused. A court of inquiry, appointed to examine his case, declared him, as a prisoner on parole, to be out of its cognizance; and a court martial, which he next insisted upon, was denied him on the same ground. Parliament alone remained upon which he could throw himself for a hearing. He accordingly, on the 26th of May, attended his duty in the House of Commons, and vindicated his conduct in a long, animated, and satisfactory speech. Two days after he made another in which he arraigned with pointed severity the weakness and incapacity of those who held the reins of government. Some management had been observed towards him by Ministers during the first debate, but they were now goaded into the most determined hostility. To get rid entirely of all further trouble from him, a weak attempt was made by some of them to exclude him from the house, under pretence that, as a prisoner of war, he could have no right to speak or vote. The Speaker being appealed to for his opinion on the subject, his decision was given in favour of the General.


As this mode of getting rid of him had failed, it was resolved to try another. A lucky opportunity of effecting this had, it was thought, occurred, in the circumftance of Congress having declined to ratify the Convention, until advices of its having been approved of by the English ministry had arrived in America. An order from the Secretary of War was accordingly sent him in the beginning of June to repair to New England, his presence there being necessary to the troops. Obedience to this order he very properly declined. A long correspondence took place on this subject, which ended by his voluntary resignation of all his appointments, amounting, it has been said, to about $17,000 a year. His rank in the Army he, however, retained, in order to render him amenable to a court martial hereafter, and to enable him to fulfil his personal faith with the enemy.


The long-desired time for defending his calumniated character at length arrived. A committee had, on the repeated demands of Sir William Howe, been appointed in 1781, to inquire into his own conduct during the American war. Before the sittings of this committee were closed, Burgoyne succeeded in procuring evidence to be examined before it with respect to the proceedings of the army under his command. The result was such as could not but be highly flattering to his feelings. Every officer that was examined gave the strongest testimony to his bravery and superior talents. It did not appear that a single fault had been found with any of his plans or movements by the most enlightened judges who were on service with him; but it did clearly appear that he enjoyed the entire confidence of the army, and that, in situations of the most trying nature, in the face of disaster, of danger, and of death, he was looked up to by his troops with the warmest affection, and the most undoubted reliance; that they were at all times ready to suffer, to fight, and to perish with him. The committee was shortly after suddenly dissolved, without having passed a single resolution upon the subject which had been referred to its confideration.


In 1780 he appeared before the public with two productions of very dissimilar natures. The first of thefe was, A State of the Expedition from Canada as laid before the House of Commons and verified by Evidence. It was inscribed, in an elegant and affectionate address, to the officers of the army which he had commanded against the Americans. He narrates, in a concise and perspicuous manner, yet with great spirit, the whole of the transactions which took place.


His other literary effort was a comic opera, in three acts, called The Lord of the Manor, which was received with much applause. It is a light but lively and well- conducted little piece, far superior in merit to many later favorites of the same kind. In the course of it, many severe and witty sarcasms are aimed at the administration which was then in power.


The party which had so long and so eloquently opposed the ruinous war with America having at last been called to share in the toils and the honours of government, Gen. Burgoyne was not forgotten. He was on the 16th of April, 1782, appointed Commander in Chief of his Majesty's forces in Ireland; a few days after, a member of the privy council of that country, and on the 7th June, 1782, Colonel of the 4th Foot. The rank of commander in chief, however, he retained not quite two years, when a new administration was again formed.


The new Ministry soon found itself vigorously attacked by the party in opposition. No pains were spared to render it an object of hatred and contempt. To accomplish these ends the powers both of wit and argument were incessantly employed. Of the weapons used in the lighter of these two modes of hostility, the Criticisms on the Rolliad, and the Probationary Odes, were, perhaps, the most offensive to the minister and his friends. No less than twenty-one editions of them have been published. The Westminster Guide, and one of the Probationary Odes, were contributed by General Burgoyne. Both these pieces are reprinted in the Collection of his Works.


In 1786 appeared his comedy of The Heiress. It was welcomed, by crowded audiences, with that applause which it so well merited. Nor was it less attractive in the closet. The sale of ten editions in one year bore ample testimony to its merits. He not long after gave to the stage an adaptation of Sedaine's historical romance of Richard Coeur de Lion, and was again successful in his claim to public approbation. The piece had a very flattering run, and has been since revived.


At an early period of his parliamentary career, Gen. Burgoyne was active in the pursuit and exposure of Indian delinquency. After a lapse of thirteen years he was called upon to assist others in the performance of a similar task. He was chofen in 1787, one of the committee of managers for conducing the impeachment of Mr. Hastings. Under this charadler he, during the course of the trial, moved the censure of the house upon Major Scott, for a libel on the conduct of the committee. The motion was carried. His sleady performance of his duty as a manager, exposed him to an anonymous attack, published in a collection of epistles, the poetical style of which was in imitation of the New Bath Guide. The conclusion of Mr. Hastings's trial the General did not live to witness. His death took place on the 4th of August, 1792, from a sudden attack of the gout, at his house in Hertford Street, May Fair, and was an unexpected stroke to his friends, as he had been out in apparently good health the preceding day. He was buried, in a very private manner, on the 13th, in the cloislers of Westminster Abbey. Only one coach, containing four gentlemen, attended his funeral. No memorial, not even a simple stone, marks the spot where his remains are interred.1


Having thus dispofed of the principal actor in the momentous movement against the infant liberties of the Republic, nothing remains but to allude to some other portion of our labours. By the courtesy of Mr. Thornton of Boston, we are enabled to add a copy of the Parole signed by the officers of the army at Cambridge, in December, 1777; also the names of those officers now, as far as we are aware, for the first time correctly printed. The reader will find also, in this volume, carefully prepared biographical sketches of Gen. James Wilkinson, Gen. Riedefel, and other officers who made this campaign, and likewise a list of the several Brunswick officers who served under Gen. Riedefel's command. We are indebted to the politeness of the Hon. James Partridge, Secretary of State of Maryland, for a copy of the joint Resolution of the General Assembly of that State, conferring a pension on Gen. Wilkinson, and to Mr. Dawson of White Plains, for the German work from which we have obtained the materials for the life of Gen. Riedefel, and the roll of his officers, with such particulars as are appended to each of their names. Other assistance will be found acknowledged in the Appendix.


1 Most of the particulars repecting Gen. Burgoyne, embraced in this Introduction are borrowed from a Sketch of the Life of that officer prefixed to an edition of his Dramatic and Poetical Works, London 1808, 2 volumes.





The Chaffeurs, Light Infantry and Grenadiers under Col. Bremen, form the Advanced Guard opposite the Point, which is a little above cleared Ground, on the Right of the Incampment. The Dragoons of Reidesel follow immediately the Advanced Guard. The First Brigade British leads the Line at the Distance of about 200 Yards in the Rear of the Dragoons. The German Brigades follow in their order. Each Corps will make a Column of four Boats in Front, and on the Flanks of the Column, taking care to leave Room for the Oars of the Center Boats.


As soon as the whole are disposed in the above order, two Guns will be fired from the Maria, and a Jack hoisted at Foretopmast Head, at which the whole will move, and whether sailing or rowing, will endeavor to keep the same Order.


Sandy Bluff, June 20, 1777.

Parole, St. Peters. Countersign, Florence.


Lieut. General Burgoyne takes the Occasion of the Army assembling to express publickly the high Opinion he entertains of the Troops which his Majesty has been graciously pleased to entrust to his Command; they could not have been selected more to his Satosfaction. And the Lieut. General trusts it will be received as one mark of his Atte tion to their Glory and Welfare, that with the promise of every encouragement the service will allow, he declares a determination, and he calls upon every officer to assist him, to maintain a steady System of Subordination and Obedience.


The following Standing Regulations laid down to prevent the necessity of lengthening the daily Orders, and are to be invariably observed.


Officers of all Ranks commanding our Ports and Detachments, are constantly to fortify in the best manner the circumstances of the place and the implements at hand will permit. Felling Trees with their Points outward, barricading Churches and Houses, Breastworks of Earth and Timber, are generally to be effected in a short Time, and the Science of Engineering is not necessary to find and apply such resources. The Pracflice of fortifying which is useful in all Services, is particularly so in this, where the Enemy, infinitely inferior to the King's Troops in open space and hardy Combat, is well fitted by dispofition and practice for the Stratagems and Enterprises of little War. And neither the distance of Camps nor the Interference of Forests and Rivers are to be looked upon as security against his Attempts. Upon the same principle it must be a constant rule in or near Woods to place advanced Centries where they may have a Tree or some other defence to prevent their being taken off by single marksmen.


Together with these precautions Officers will ever bear in mind how much the publick honour and their own are concerned in maintaining a Post; and that to justify a Retreat in the present War, the number of the Enemy must be much superior to that which would make their Jsftification when acting against brave and disciplined Forces.


The Officers will take all proper Opportunities, and especially at the beginning of the Campaign, to inculcate in the men's minds a Reliance upon the Bayonet. Men of half their bodily strength, and even Cowards may be their match in firing; but the onset of Bayonets in the hands of the Valiant is irresistable. The Enemy, convinced of this truth, place their whole dependance in Entrenchments and Rifle pieces. It will be our Glory and preservation to form where possible.


The Attention of every Officer in Action is to be employed upon his men. To make use of a Fufil, except in very extraordinary cases of immediate personal defence, would betray an ignorance of his importance, and his Duty.


No occasion can make it necessary to keep the Arms loaded in the Bell Tents : nor are the Battalions of the Line ever to be loaded upon the march till very near the time when they may be expected to engage.


No Parties are to go from Camp with or without Arms, without a proportionate number of Officers. Not only the Discipline and Honour, but also the safety of the Troops require the strictest prohibition from Straggling and Plundering, and the Savages as well as the Provost will have Orders to punish Offenders in these respects, instantly, and with the utmost rigour.


The Camp will always be extended as widely as the Ground will admit, for the sake of Cleanliness and of Health; but as it must often happen that the extent will be insufficient for the Line to form in the Front of the Encampment, according to the present establishment of open Files and two deep, the Quarter-Master-General will therefore mark at every new Camp the Portion of Ground each Battalion is to clear over and above its own Front, in order to make the work equal. To clear this Ground must be the immediate business after arriving in Camp, and in this Country, it may often be necessary to have an Alarm Post cleared in the Rear as well as in the Front. By clearing is meant the removal of such obstructions as might prevent the ready forming of the Troops to receive or advance upon the Enemy. It is not necessary to cut the large Trees for that purpose, except where they may afford Shelter for the Enemy.


Quarter Guards are always to face outwards, and at the distance of a hundred yards from the Bells of Arms, and to have a Fluke of earth or timber thrown up before them.


When the Encampment of the Line is with the Front to the water, and too near to admit of this regulation, the Quarter Guards are to be ported in the Rear, and those of the Flank Regiments occasionally upon the Flanks.


Though the ground will seldom admit a strict regularity in pitching the Officers' Tents, they are never to be placed so as to interfere with the Line of Defence.


All Deserters from the Enemy, suspected Spies, or other persons presenting themselves at the Outposts, or otherwiie stopped, are to be sent forthwith to Head Quarters, without questioning them.


In all Duties by Detachment, the Corps will furnish according to their Effeftive Strength.


When the Lieut. General visits an Outpost, the men are not to stand to their Arms, or pay him any Compliment.


The Articles of War which regard the men, to be read at the head of every Regiment to-morrow evening parade, and afterwards these Regulations.


The Daily Duties will be as follows. One Brigadier General for the Day, who will visit the Outpofts, and have a General inspection over the Camp. All reports are to be made through him, except when any Alarm or other Exigency requires instant notice to the Commander-in-Chief


A Major of Brigade for the Day, who is to parade all Guards, and Detachments, &c.


When the last Brigade arrives the Picquet will consist of one Field Officer for each Wing; one Captain for each Brigade, one Subaltern, one Serjeant, one Corporal, and twenty-five Private men, from each Regiment. A Drum to be furnished by the Regiment which gives the Captain.


The whole Picquet to assemble half an hour before Gun firing at the Centre of the Line, and to be exercised in marching and charging with Bayonets, under the inpection of the Brigadier of the day, in order that the British and German Troops may acquire a uniformity of pace and motion when acting together in Line.


Half the Picquet is always to be polled during the night at some distance from the Camp, and at such places as may be exposed to the secret approach of the Enemy. It will be the care of the Brigadier of the Day to poll them.


Camp at River Bouqjjet,

June 21st, 1777.

Parole, St. Mark. Countersign, Rome.


The Army will move forward on Monday, and take up the Ground now occupied by Brigadier

General Fraser's Corps, near the River Bouquet.  They will take their Orders from Major General



Camp at River Bouquet, June 22, 1777. Parole, St. Mary. Counterfign, Scotland.


Camp at River Bouquet, June 23, 1777. Parole, St. George. Counterfign, England.


Camp at River Bouquet, June 24, 1777.


Parole, St. Marguerite. Countersign, Chamblee.


The Lieut. General has observed with satisfaction, that some Corps have got the Art of making Flour cakes without ovens, which are equally wholesome and relishing with the best Bread. He recommends it strongly to the Commanding Officers to bring their Corps into this useful Practice, as it may frequently happen that the movements of the Army will be too quick to admit a possibility of construcfling ovens.


No Guns to be fired in Camp, and the standing Orders against any Soldier going beyond the advanced Gentries is to be put strictly in Execution from this day. One day's Provisions to be cooked this evening or to-morrow morning, to be ready for the next movement of the Army.


Camp at River Bouquet, June 25, 1777.

Parole, St. Julien. Countersign, Lisbon.


The Army will move tonight, weather permitting. Major General Reidesel commands.


The daily Duty as regulated in the Orders of the 20th June takes place.


Brigadier General of the day, Powell.


Brigade Major, Muir.


Field Officer for the Picquet British, Maj. Irwine.


Field Officer for the Picquet German, --


Crown Point, June 26'!^, 1777.


Parole, St. Anthony. Countersign, Padua.


Each Regiment will send the D. A. General a Return of the Dates of the Officers' Commissions, specifying those who have Rank in the Army senior to their Regimental Rank.


Monthly Returns are to be sent the first of every month to Head Quarters. The British according to the printed Forms. The Brigades will send in their weekly States immediately; for the future they are to be sent to Head Quarters every Monday.


Each Regiment will send in a Return of the number of Rations daily drawn for Officers, Effective Soldiers, Women and Servants.


The British are to send six Batteaux and the Germans ten, with five men in each, and proper Officers and Non-Commission Officers along side of the Washington, to-morrow morning at four o'clock, to receive Directions from Mr. Commissary General Clarke, for unloading and transporting Provisions on Shore.


The British to furnish 40 men, and the Germans 20, with Officers, &c., to receive the Provisions at Chimney Point, and to arrange them. This Party to parade half an hour after the former.


When the Wings of the Army are separated, as in the present instance by a River, it is not required that the Picquet should join, but they are to assemble by Wings in the Front of the Encampment, and the Field Officer of each Wing will poll the Part that is to be advanced.


No Evening Gun to fire till further Orders.


Lieut. Twifs, Aid de Camp to Major General Phillips, has the Command of the Corps of Engineers, and is to be obeyed accordingly.


In case of an Alarm, the Army is always to form in the Front of the Camp, unless particularly ordered to the contrary.


Camp Crown Point, 27 June, 1777.


Parole, St. James. Countersign, Genoa.


Brigadier General for the day, Specht.


Brigade Major, Cleve.


Field Officer for the Picquet British, Colo. Hill.


Field Officer for the Picquet German, Lt. Col. Praslonus.


A Return to be given in this Evening, what Batteaux are missing. If any cannot proceed without repair, they are to be reported at the same time.


The evening Gun will fire this evening from the Right, and is to be repeated upon the Left, and to be continued till the Wings join, when one Gun only will be fired.


If any of the Regiments want working Tools to clear their Ground, they are to apply to the Brigades of Artillery upon the Flanks, and return them as soon as the work is done. The greatest Attention must be had to the care of the Tools, as the Regiments will be answerable for them.


Lieut. Roberton of the Corps of Engineers is attached to the Right Wing of the Army, and to take Orders occasionally for Strengthening the Right of the Camp, from the Brigadiers Powell,1 and Hamilton. Lieut. Dunford is attached to the Left Wing of the Army under the Command of Major General Reidesel.


1 Henry Watson Powell. We find this officer appointed in 1756, to the command of a company in the 64th Foot, which regiment served in the expeidtion against the French West India Islands in 1759, and in America in 1768. On the 2nd June 1770, he became Maor of the 38th, and on 25th July, 1771, Lieutenant Colonel of the 53rd, which formed a part of this expedition, wherein Leieut. Colonel Powell held the rank of Brigadier General. When the Americans evacuated Ticonderoga on the 6th July, 1777, Big. Powell was left in command of that post with a suitable garrison. After the defeat of Baum at Bennington, the Americans devised a plan to cut off Burgoyne's supplies. With that view an expedition was got up to recover Ticonderoga.  The manner of conducting the movement was left to G. Lincoln with a force of 1500 of the New Hampshire and Connecticut militia. Such secrecy and activity had been used on the occasion that early on the 18th of September they succeeded in securing the old French lines near the fort and sumoned the garrison to surrender.  Brig. Gen. Powell however declined the invitation, and for four days maintained a most gallant defence, and at als obliged the enemy to retreat. On the evacuation of Ticonderoga in November, Brig. Powell returned to Canada. He obtained the brevet rank of Colonel in 1779; was advanced to the grade of Major General on 20th November, 1782, and to the chief command of the 69th regiment in april 1792. On the 20th April, 1794, he became Colonel of the 15th foot; Lieutenant General in 1796; a General oin the Army on 1st January, 1801, and died at Lyme, at an advanced age, on 14th July, 1814.


Camp Crown Point, 28th June, 1777. Parole, St. Patrick. Countersign, Dublin

Brigadier General for the day, Hamilton.

Brigade Major, Kirkman.1




1 Michael Kirkman received a comnission of 2d Lieutenant in the 21stt Fuzileers on the 12th May, 1761, the regiment being sent on the expedition against Bclleisle. He was appointed ist Lieutenant in 1768, accompanied his regiment to Canada in 1776, and became Adju-tant of it in February of that year, and Captain on the 8th June, 1777. His name appears for the last time in the Army List of 1782.



Field Officer for the Picquet British, Lt. Col. Lind.

Field Officer for the Picquet German, Lt. Col. Lentz.


Should it be necessary for the Line to embark suddenly, two Guns will be fired from the Right Wing, which are to be repeated upon the Left.


Upon that Signal, the men's Tents are to be struck immediately, and flowed in the Batteaux, together with Knapsacks, Blankets, Provisions, and Ammunition; no other Articles of Baggage are to be carried, consequently 17 Boats will suffice for each Battalion British, and 22 Boats for each Bat-talion German.


The remaining Boats to be left to bring forward the Officers' Tents and rest of the Baggage when ordered.


A Subaltern and 20 men per Regiment and one Captain from each Brigade to be left in charge of them.


Should it be necessary for the Line to move suddenly without embarking, four Guns will be fired from the Right and repeated upon the Left. At which Signal the Line to form with all possible expedition, in the Front of the Bells of Arms, and Tents to be left standing.


These Orders to remain in force during the whole Campaign.


The Troops are to make up Cartridges according to the Standing Order of the Army, to a

hundred rounds a man. Those Regiments which are not supplied with that number in Powder, Ball and Paper, are to apply to the Artillery. But should the Magazine-Vessel not be arrived for delivery of those Articles directly, the Regiments to make an equal Division of the Ammunition as it now stands, and the Brigadiers General will give Orders accordingly.


The greatest care to be taken of the Musquet Cartridges, not only of those carried by the Soldiers, but what is reserved in the Ammunition Boxes, and the Ball never to be lost or thrown away. And as the Orders given last year are sufficiently clear and strong on this matter, no more need be observed than that from the difficulty of fresh supplies cross the Lake, it becomes the duty of the Commanding Officers of Companies to be particularly attentive to this, so material a part of their Service. And the Commanding Officers of Corps are made answerable that the Orders given on this subject are obeyed.


Orderly time is fixed for 11 o'clock.


Crown Point, 29th June, 1777. Parole, St. Francis. Countersign, Cork.

Brig, General for the day, Powell.

Brigade Major, Muir.

Field Officer for the Picquet British, Major Forstier.

Brigadier General for the German, Specht.

Brigade Major, Cleve.

Field Officer for Picquet German, Major Hille.


While the Wings of the Army remain divided, the Brigadier's Duty of Inspection will be done by a Brigadier of each Wing, who will take this duty three days about. And the Brigadier of the Left Wing will report to Major General Reidesel. The Corps de Reserve of the Left Wing will receive Provisions this afternoon to the 8th of July inclusive. The rest of Army will tomorrow morning receive Provisions to the same time.


All the Batteaux that want repair are to be sent to Chimney Point with proper men to take care of them, which men are to assist in picking Oakum if necessary. Each Wing will send ten Batteaux at a time.


The Reserve of the Germans to furnish a Guard upon the Depot at Chimney Point of an Officer and 30 men to furnish Centinels as the Commissary General shall require. The Reserve will also furnish a Sergeant and 12 men to cover the Workmen in the Woods : they are to receive their Orders from Engineer Twiss.1


1 William Twiss was born in the year 1745, and entered the Military Department of the Ordnance in July, 1 760, and in November, 1763, obtained a commission as Ensign in the corps of Engineers. He did duty as an Engineer in the Garrifon at Gibraltar until 1771, when he was promoted to a lieutenancy; from 1772 to the end of 1775, he was employed on the new fortifications for the defence of the dockyard at Portsmouth; early in 1776 he embarked with General Burgoyne and his army for Canada, and landed at Quebec in June, when he was nominated Aid-de-Camp to Major General Phillips. He was with the Army in pursuing the Americans up the river St. Lawrence, and was in the affair at Three Rivers, 8th June, and proceeded with the Army until the Americans were driven out of Canada, and embarked in their fleet and boats on Lake Champlain in July. He was then appointed by Sir Guy Carleton, the Commander-in-Chief, to be Comptroller of Works, and to superintend the construction of a fleet for Lake Champlain, with gun boats and batteaux for carrying the army over the Lake; and with the able assistance ot the naval department, over which Admiral Schank was made Commissioner, they began, in the middle of July, every necessary preparation for so arduous an undertaking, and at a time that government had neither vessel nor boat on Lake Champlain, nor the smallest building for barracks, store-houses, or workshops. Notwithstanding all which, a numerous fleet was constructed which fought and defeated the Americans at Valcour Island, on the 11th and 12th Oftober, and obtained the naval superiority during the whole war. He then proceeded with the army to Crown Point, and with it returned and wintered in Canada. In the Spring of 1777, he was appointed Commanding Engineer under General Burgoyne; and in July was with the army at the investment of Ticonderoga, where the Americans had employed many thousand men, during eight months, in fortifying Mount Independence; but from the position which the army took, these works were immediately abandoned. He served with the army the whole of the campaign, and was present at all the general actions, and was included in the Convention of Saratoga, but was, with other officers, exchanged a tew days afterwards and returned to Ticonderoga, when he assisted in the evacuation ot that post in November, 1777. At the close of 1778 he obtained a commission as Captain, and in that year was sent by General Sir F. Haldimand to Lake Ontario, to form a naval establishment on the east side of that lake; and was afterwards employed in different parts ot Canada as Commanding Engineer, until the peace of 1783, when he obtained leave to return to England. In 1785 he was employed as Secretary to the Board of Land and Sea Officers, appointed under the King's Sign Manual, to report upon the defences of the dockyards at Portsmouth and Plymouth. From 1785 to 1792, he was employed as an Engineer at Portsmouth, where many new works were constructing, particularly Cumberland Fort, at the entrance of Langston Harbour. In June, 1794, he was made Lieutenant Colonel, and in the same year was appointed Lieutenant Governor of the Royal Academy at Woolwich. Between 1792 and 1799, he was employed in augmenting the defences on the coasts of Kent and Sussex, particularly at Dover Castle. In 1799, upon Colonel Hay of the Engineers being killed in Holland, he was sent as Commanding Royal Engineer, under the Duke of York, and remained there until the evacuation of that country was completed; and on the 1st January, 1800, he obtained the rank of Colonel, in which year he was sent to visit the Islands of Guernsey and Jersey. In 1802 he was ordered to make the tour of Ireland, and report respecting its defences. In 1803 he was again sent to the coasts of Kent and Susex, and was appointed Brigadier General in February, 1804; Major General on the 30th October, 1805, in which year he was directed to carry into execution the system of detached redoubts and towers which government had adopted for the defence of that seacoast, and was finished about the year 1809; on the 24th of June in that year he was appointed Colonel Commandant of the Royal Engineers, when he ceased to be Lieutenant Governor of the Academy at Woolwich. In 1810, after an active service of fifty years, he obtained leave to be unemployed, and retired into the country. On the 1st January, 1812, he rose to the rank of Lieutenant General, and became General in the Army 27th May, 1825. General Twiss died March 14th, 1827, at his seat at Harden Grange, Yorkshire, aged 82 years. (Gcntleman's Magazine. )



Two Batteaux with proper Oars are to be sent from every Regiment to Chimney Point, to be delivered to Mr. Stuart, foreman of the Caulkers.


The Picquets of the Line to be formed an hour before Sunset, in order to their being ported while it is light.


The Regiments to parade under arms at the same time to practice the firing motions, which is to be done in as quick time as possible, being regular. The Brigadiers will take care that every Regiment pursues the same method.


Crown Point, 30th June, 1777. Parole, St. David. Countersign, Wales.


Brigadiers and Brigade Majors as yesterday.

Field Officer for Picquets British, Lt. Col. Sutherland.1

Field Officer for Picquet German, Ma Mongon.


The Army embarks tomorrow to approach the Enemy. We are to contend for the King and the Constitution of Great Britain, to vindicate the Law and to relieve the Oppressed. A Cause in which His Majesty's Troops and those of the Princes His Allies, will feel equal Excitement.


The Services required of this particular Exped tion are critical and conspicuous. During our progress occasions may occur, in which nor difficulty nor labour nor life are to be regarded. This Army must not Retreat.



1 Nicholas Sutherland was commissioned Lieutenant in the 62d or first Highland Battalion 8th January, 1757, on the organization of that corps. The number of this regiment was afterwards changed to the 77th, and Mr. Sutherland became Captain-Lieutenant of it 15th September, 1758, and served in the expedition against Fort Du Quesne, which was reduced in the following November. This regiment formed part of the army under Amherst in 1759, and was detached against the Cherokees, in 1760, Capt. Lieutenant Sutherland was wounded in that expedition; obtained a Company in December, 1761, and served in the expeditions against Martinico and Havana in 1762, and in 1763 went on half pay, where he remained until March, 1765, when he obtained a company in the 21st Fuzileers, of which corps he became Major, 21st February, 1772.

 He was promoted to be Lieutenant Colonel of the 47th Foot on the 5th November, 1776, and signed the  Cambridge parole in the following month. Lt. Col. Sutherland held his rank in the 47th until his death, which occurred in the year 1781.



The General to beat tomorrow at dawn of day, instead of the Revallie; the Assembly an hour afterwards. The Dragoons of Reidesel form the Advanced Guard, except the Part of them which

guard the General's T^nts, who will come up in the rear ot the Line. Each Wing to form a Column of Batteaux as in the former movement, the Right Wing keeping the Weft Shore, the Left Wing the Eaft. Both Wings are to take up the Ground of the new Encampment in two Lines.


A Detachment of one Field Officer, two Captains, four Subalterns with Non-commission Officers in proportion, and two hundred men are to remain at Chimney Point to guard the Magazines. This Detachment to be taken from the Second Brigades of each Wing. The British give the Field Officer, one Captain, two Subalterns, and one hundred men — the German one Captain, two Subalterns and one hundred men. Field Officer for this Duty Lieut. Cololonel Austruther; this Detachment to relieve the present Guards at Chimney Point this evening an hour before sunset. Immediately after coming to the new Camp to-morrow a Party of Fatigue, consisting of 25 men per Regiment of the Right Wing, with Officers in proportion, to parade in front of their first Line, where they will receive tools and take Directions from the Engineer of the Wing. The men designed for this party are to be spared from the labour of rowing the Batteaux in order to keep them fresh. The Left Wing will at the fame time clear their Front to the extent of a musquet shot.


The 62d Regiment are to compleat their Provisions to the 8th day of July inclusive. The two

Batteaux per Regiment that were ordered to be delivered to Mr. Stuart in yesterday's Orders, have only been obeyed in part. Those Regiments that negledted to lend their Batteaux are to send them immediately.


When Orders are given and no particular time named, they are to be executed not only with Punctuality, but with the utmoft difpatch.


No Officers to go to the advanced Corps of the Army without leave, and having permission are never to go beyond the Outposts of those Corps, without previous leave of the Officer commanding them.


His Excellency Sir Guy Carleton has been pleased to make the following Promotions in the Army.


53rd Regiment Mr. Hamilton1 to be Enlsgn in the Room of Ensign Davis deceased. Quarter Master Price2 of the 53rd Regiment is appointed Lieutenant in the Emigrants.


Serjeant Major John Chalmers of the 53rd Regiment is appointed Quarter Master in room of Lieut. Price.


Mr. May is appointed Ensign in the Emigrants. Captain Green3 of the 31st Regiment is appointed Aid de Camp to Major General Phillips during the Campaign.



1 Thomas Hamilton was promoted to a lieutenancy 27th December, 1785, and went on half pay in 1788.

2 1 David Price was appointed Quarter Mafter of the 53rd regiment 29th March, 1776, and on the above date was commissioned Lieutenant in the 1st battalion of  the 84th, which was disbanded in 1783.

3 Charles Green was born at Gibraltar, December 18, 1749, the second son of Christopher Green,

Esq. a Captain in the army, by Britannia, daughter of Charles Hamtlton, of Monaghan, in Ireland, Esq. He was appointed Gentleman Cadet in the Royal Artillery 1760, Ensign in the 31st Foot 1765, and joined that regiment in the following year at Pensacola in West Florida. In 1768 he was employed under Brig. Gen. Haldimand in a particular service to New Orleans and the Natches, on the Mississippi, and in 1769 removed with the regiment to St. Auguftine in East Florida. He was promoted to a lieutenancy November 23, that year. In 1771, he was employed as an Engineer in the Bahama Islands; and having rejoined the 31ft regiment at the latter

end of 1772, in the Island of St. Vincent, served in the campaign against the revolted Charibs. He returned to England with the regiment in May, 1773; was appointed Adjutant soon after; purchased the captain-lieutenancy in 1774, succeeded to a company in 1775. In 1776 he again accompanied the regiment across the Atlantic; and was present at the action of Trois Rivieres, on the 8th of June. At the opening of the campaign of 1777, he was appointed Aid-de- Camp to Major Gen. Phillips, the second in command; and was wounded at the action of Freeman's  Farm in September. Having returned to England in March, 1778, Capt. Green was appointed Aid-de- Canip to Lt. Gen. Sir A. Oughton, Commander-in-chief in North Britain; after whosc death, in May, 1780, he rejoined the 31st regiment, and in 1781 was appointed Major of brigade to the Montreal district. He was included in the brevet of Majors in 1783, and purchased the majority of the 31st in 1788. On the breaking out of the war in 1793, he being then nearly at the head of the list of Majors in the army, was appointed Lieutenant Colonel of one ot the battalions formed from the in dependent companies; whence, in February, 1794., he exchanged to the  command of the 30th regiment, with which he proceeded to Corsica in May tollowing, and remained there until 1796, having for the greater part of that time acted as Inspector General of Corsican troops raised for the Britslh service. In 1796 Lieut. Col. Green was appointed Civil Governor of Grenada, in which office he continued until 1801, when, his sight being much injured by the climate, he received pcrmission to return. He had in the meantime been promoted to the rank of Colonel, in January, 1797, and Brigadier General, Oct. 1798. Early in 1803, he was appointed Brigadier General on the staff in Ireland, and commanded in the counties of Tipperary and Kilkenny; and was afterwards removed to the staff in England, and to command at Dover and Deal. He received the honour of knighthood May 3, that year. In January, 1804, he was appointed Colonel of the York Light Infantry Volunteers. In the same month he received orders to proceed immediately to Barbadoes, to take the temporary command of the troops in the Leeward Islands.


He arrived there in March, and, in pursuance of his instructions, sailed in April, in command of an expedition against the Dutch settlement of Surinam, which, after an active series of operations for about nine days, capitulated to the Britosh arms. He remained at Surinam about a year in administration of the civil government; and, having obtained leave to return home on account of ill health, was honoured on his arrival with a patent of Baronetcy, dated December 5, 1805. In May, 1807, Sir Charles Green was appointed to the command of the garrison at Malta, which he retained until the May following. In August, 1808, he was removed to the 16th regiment; in 1809 promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General; in March, 1812, placed on the Staff to command the Northern district; in November, 1813, removed to the London district; in 1814,  appointed Colonel of the 37th Foot; and in 1819, advanced to the rank of General. He died at Cheltenham, in 1831, aged 81. (Annual Biog. xvi, 439.)



Camp at Ticonderoga

1st July, 1777. Parole, St. Peters. Couritersign, Westminfter.

Brigadiers and Brigade Majors as yesterday.

Field Officer for Picquet British, Major Forbes.

Field Officer for Picquet German, Major Elurenkrook.


Communications to be made between the second Line and first Line towards the great wood leading from Crown Point to Ticonderoga.


Should it be necessary to sustain the Advanced Corps of the Army. The First Brigade British will move by Land, the Seond Brigade by water. It will be therefore necessary that the ground over which the First Brigade would pas, be thoroughly reconnoitered, and it is to be a standing rule for the Commanding Officers of Corps, as well as the Brigadiers, always to make themselves acquainted with the Ground in Front. No fires to be made at the roots of trees, nor are the trees not cut down to be belted, as marks of communication will be sufficiently made by notches.


A Working Party of 25 men, a Regiment from the Right Wing with Officers in proportion to be ready to turn out at five o'clock tomorrow morning, to attend the Commanding Engineer.


Camp near Ticondercga, 2nd July, 1777.

Parole, St. Theodorius. Countersign, Gloucester.

Brigadier General for British, Hamilton1

Brigade Major, Kirkman.

Field Officer for British Picquet, Major Irwing.

Brigadier General German, Gall,

Brigade Major, Gismar.

Field Officer German Picquet, Major Luke.



1 James Inglis Hamilton was Captain in the Army as early as 1755, and on the 25th August, 1756, obtained a coinpany in the 34th Foot, which regiment had ormed part of the garrifon at Fort St. Philip when besieged by the French in June, 1756. In 1758 the regiment was employed in the expedition to St. Male on the coast of France, and in 1760 served in the expedition against Belleiske. On the increase of the Army in 1761,  Captain Hamihon was appointed Major commanding the newly raised 113th regiment, and on its reduction in 1763 went on half pay.  In 1772 he obtained the brevet rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and on the 11th March, 1774, was  appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the 21st or Royal North British Fuzileers, and proceeded to Canada in 1776 with the rank of Brigadier General, having the command of the 2d brigade. Having accompanied the Britilh portion of the "Convention " troops to Massachusetts, his name is found signed to the parole given by the officers at Cambridge in December. These troops having been afterwards ordered to the South, Brig. Hamilton was stationed at Frcdericktown in

Maryland. When orders were received for their removal to Lancaster on the approach of Lord

Cornwallis in 1 781, and for the separation of the officers from the soldiers, he did all in his power to alleviate the sufferings of the men and ordered that they should be paid the balance of their accounts. Brig. Hamilton was advanced to the rank of Major General in 1787, and on  the 22nd August, 1792, was appointed Colonel of the 15th Foot, and on the 20th June, 1794, of his old regimcnt, the 21st Fuzileers. He was advanced to the grade ot Lieutenant General in 1797; became General in the Army in 1802, and died at his house at Murdostown, 27th July, 1803.



Upon the Order for establishing Point an Fer a Military Post, Lieut. Twiss of the Corps of Engineers, with Lieut. Beacrost of the 24th Regiment, Assistant Engineer, were sent there to form the Establishment accordingly.


A Detachment of Infantry was also sent to cover the Workmen and defend the Post, when it became a matter of doubt whether the Officer Commanding that Detachment was to cosfider himself under the Orders of the Engineer at that Post, although of Senior Rank by Commission.


To prevent Doubts or Inconveniences in the Service for the future, it is to be understood by the Army, that whoever has the honour to have a Commission from the King must take Command according to the date of such Commission, and therefore Engineers and Assistant Engineers, being stationed or employed by Order ot the Commander in Chief at any Post with any Detachment of the Army, must be obeyed as commanding that Post, should the date of his Commission be senior to that of other Officers in such a Situation.


The Conduct however of the Officers who went on these Detachments is to be commended by having declined any dispute which might have proved of any inconvenience to the Service.


The Parties that were applied for by the Paymaster General and the Hospital, being for a temporary purpose, they were of course to return to their Regiments as soon as that duty was done.


Camp near Ticonderoga, 3rd July, 1777.

Parole, St. Honora, Countersign, Dover.

Brigadier Generals and Brigade Majors as yesterday.

Field Officer Picquet British, Lieut. Col. Hill.

Field Officer Picquet German, Major Passem.


It being apparent that Liquor is sold or given to the Savages, notwithstanding the positive and repeated Orders to the Contrary, the Commanding Officers are to assemble the Sutlers and Women of the respective Regiments, and inform them that the first person found guilty of disobedience shall inftantly have their liquors and sutling stores destroyed and turned out of Camp, besides receiving such Corporal Punishment as a Court Martial shall inflict. All Officers are also to communicate to their men this prohibition of fspplying the Savages with Spirituous Liquors. And it is expected that Officers, instead of screening Offenders, will be the first to bring them to condign punishment; and to give further force to this prohibition, ten Dollars will be paid by the Adjutant General to the first perfon who shall discover an Offender, upon Conviction of such Offender before a Court Martial.


A large Road of Communication to be made forthwith from the Camp of the Left Wing to the ground where Colonel Brumens Corps is now posted.

The Brigade of Gall are to take up the ground where Brigadier General Fraser was encamped at Threemile Point. They will send over their Quarter Masters and Camp Collourmen to mark their Camp, and have their Baggage loaded, but are not to pass till dark. They will be upon their Arms during the night, and be prepared to encamp at day light.


The first Brigade British to march immediately and take up the ground to the Left of General Frasers Corps, extending their Left to the Ravine.


The Second Brigade to return to Camp as soon as the First arrives, and be prepared to move tomorrow morning.


Till further Orders the Regiments are never to be without two days' Provisions ready cooked.


It is known that there are many men in the Rebel Army who are well affected to the Cause of the King. Some have been compelled into the Service, others engaged only with a view of joining the King's Troops. The Savages are therefore cautioned against firing upon any single man or small parties that may be endeavouring to come over, and the Army in general will consider these men in a very different light from common Deferters, and treat them with all possible encouragement; and should it unfortunately happen that any Soldier of this Army should fall into the hands of the Enemy, it will be his Duty to let this Order be known in the Enemy's Army.


The Hospital will remain at Threemile Point till further orders. One sergeant and twelve men is to be furnished from each Wing as an Hospital Guard.


The Hospital will draw Provisions from the Commissary, who will have Orders to provide fresh Provisions as often as possible.


When the Hospital shall be so circumstanced that those Gentlemen shall think it necessary for any men to be removed, they will make their Application to the Deputy Adjutant General.


Camp near Ticonderoga,

4th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Hillary. Countersign, Dartmouth.

Brigadier Generals and Brigade Majors, as yesterday.

Field Officer Picquet British, Major Harnage.1

Field Officer Picquet German, Major Eluronkrook.


The Brigade of Gall to furnish the working Parties on the West of the River.


An Orderly Sergeant from the British to be in waiting till further Orders, day and night, at the house at Threemile Point.


The Dragoons of Reidesel to take up the Ground upon the heighth in the rear of General Frafer' s Brigade where will be the Head Quarters. All possible diligence is to be ufed to compleat the communication and Roads for Artillery.


No private persons are to buy horses from the Savages, as they are designed for the Public Service of the Army.



I Henry Harnage of Belleswardine, Shropfhire, England, received a commission as Lieutenant in the 62d regiment, on the organization of that corps in 1757, and served afterwards in the West Indies, where he obtained his company in 1767. After returning to Ireland this regiment received orders for Canada in 1775, at the close of which year Mr. Harnage was appointed Major. He was wounded at the battle of Stillwater and accompanied the Convention troops to Cambridge. He became Lieutenant-Colonel in the Army in 1780; on the 18th March, 1782, was appointed Lieut. Colonel of the 104th Foot, but left that regiment in the beginning of 1783, and was afterwards appointed Inspecting Field Officer of Yeomanry and Volunteers on 24th September, 1803. Mrs. Harnage accompanied her husband throughout this Campaign, and died May 27, 1790. In 1791 his daughter Mary was married to George Blackman, Esq., afterwards Sir George Harnage, Bart.; and in 1798 his daughter Ottavia was married to Edward Gwatkin, Esq. We find subsequently to this William Henry Harnage of Bellefwardine, Captain of dragoons, but whether he was son of Lt. Col. Harnage or not, we have no means of determining.



Camp near Ticonderoga,

5th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Agatha. Countersign, Dorchefter.

Brigadier General Britifh, Powell.

Brigade Major, Muir.

Field Officer British, Lieut. Colonel Lynd.

Brigadier General German, Specht.

Brigade Major, Cleve.

Field Officer German, Major Lueke.


In consideration of the heat of the weather and the alacrity with which the men have worked, a Refreshment of Rum will be given to the whole Army. The Quarter Master with proper parties will receive it this evening from Mr. McKenzie at Threemile Point at the rate of half a Pint a man.


The Brigadiers will regulate the Portion of water to be mixed with it, and the times of distribution.


Exclusive of the working parties upon the Road, 400 men from the Right Wing are to be kept fresh for working under the Chief Engineer tomorrow at Sunset.


Ticonderoga, 6th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Stephen. Countersign, Cambridge.

The 62nd Regiment to take possession of Mount Independence; the Regiment of Prince Frederick to take possession of Ticonderoga; Brigadier General Hamilton to command the two Regiments.


All the rest of the Army to Proceed by South Bay, leaving Batteaux and a small Guard to follow as soon as possible with the Tents and Baggage.


General Hamilton will place Guards for the preservation of all the Buildings from fire and collect all the Powder and other Stores, and secure them.


After Orders at Skeinesborough.


Every Circumstance of this day affords matter of Applause to the Officers and Soldiers.


Every man must now perceive how essential it may be to the King's Service to continue vigorously the pursuit of a flying Enemy.


The Lieut. General therefore depends upon the zeal of the Army not to relax, whatever may be the fatigue, while there is a prsfpect of overtaking the Fugitives. The Provisions remaining is to be cooked at daylight, in order that the meat may be carried cold in the Haversacks, and the Regiments will be ready to move at a moment's warning.


Camp at Skeinesborough,

7th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Martha. Countersign, Berkshire.


The Commissaries are to deliver to the Army eight days' Provisions, commencing the ninth instant. This Provisions is on board the Royal George. All the rest of the Army's Provisions is

to be landed tomorrow morning at day break under the direction of Lieut. Ciirrie1, Commissary of the Second Brigade.


All papers found containing any intelligence of the Rebels are to be sent to the Adjutant General immediately; and for the future, it is to be an invariable rule, to send in all papers of that nature as soon as they are found.


It is of the utmost prejudice to the King's Officers to molesl or territy persons coming in to surrender; the attempt to take anything from such people, as well as every other kind of Plunder, will be punished with the greateft severity.


The Standing Order for conducing all Deserters from the Enemy to Head Quarters immediately, and without questioning, is not sufficiently attended to.


The Quarter Master of each Regiment will be on board the Royal George this evening at five o'clock, to receive 8 days' Provisions from Capt. Scott, Commissary to the Firft Brigade.


Camp at Skeinesborough House,

July 8th, 1777.

Parole, St. Simeon. Countersign, Exeter.


The Lieut. General has made Collo. Skeine's Houfe Head Quarters. A Guard consisting of a Serjeant, Corporal and 18 men to be post at Head Quarters immediately.



1 Samuel Currie entered theArmy as 2d Lieutenant in the 21st Fuzileers, 14th March 1766 and

became 1st Lieutenant in 1772. He was killed at Saratoga in the course of this Campaign.



The Posts of battle are as follow. The Right Brigade British are to place their Right to the Rock near the wood, and extend their Left to the Fort.


The Dragoons of Reidesel secure their Flank on the heighth in the wood. The Second Brigade British are to occupy the Fort.


The five Companies of the 24th Regiment are to form in the rear of the Fort, as a Corps of Reserve.


The Brigade of Specht is to form on the ground where they drew up this morning, with the fortified Barn before the Centre. This Brigade and the Regiment of Hesse are to throw a picket into the Barn and to fortify a Post on the Summit of the Hill, where they will post a picquet of an hundred men.


The Regiment of Hesse are to form with their Right to Skeinesborough House, and their Left to the Brigade of Specht.


The ground making it necessary for the Corps to encamp in the front of the Line of Battle, should they be ordered under arms they are to strike their Tents instantly and leave them on the ground. It is to be observed that the Line forms behind the Artillery.


Camp at Skeinesborough House, 9th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Agnes. Countersign, Stamford.


All Prisoners that have been taken from the Enemy, to be forwarded as soon as possible, except such as are wounded, and to be lent on board the Commodore under proper Guards. The Guards are to return as soon as the Prisoners are delivered.


One Subaltern and 20 men from the Right Wing will mount at the Fort as a main Guard, and receive all Prisoners that may be sent. One Subaltern and 20 men will mount at the fortified barn in the Left Wing, as a main Guard, and will receive all Prisoners that may be sent.


Camp at Skeinesborough House,

July 10th, 1777.

Parole, St. Eustage.

Countersign, Falmouth.


On the 6th of July the Enemy were dislodged from Ticonderoga by the meer continance and activity of the Army, and driven on the same day beyond Skeinesborough on the Right, and to Huberton on the Left, with the loss of all their Artillery, five of their armed vessels taken and blown up, by the spirited condust of Capt. Carter1 of the Artillery, with a part of his Brigade of Gun boats, and a very great quantity of Ammunition, Provisions and stores of all forts, and the greatest part of their Baggage.



1 John Carter was appointed 1st Lieutenant in the Royal Artillery 2nd April, 1757; Captain-Lieutenant 1st January, 1759; and Captain 7th December, 1763; appointed Major in the Army 29th August, 1777, for his conduct on the above occaion; he reached the rank of Lieutenant- Colonel in the Army in 1783, when his name is dropped.



On the 7th Brigadier General Fraser at the head of a little more than half the Advanced Corps, and without Artillery, which with the utmost endeavours it was impossible to get up, came up with near two thousand of the Enemy, strongly posted, attacked and defeated them with the loss on the Enemy's part of many of their Principal Officers, two hundred men killed on the spot, a much larger number wounded, and about two hundred made prisoners. Major General Reidesel with his Advanced Guard consisting of the Chasseur Company and Grenadiers and Light Infantry arrived in time to sustain General Fraser, and by his judicious Orders and a spirited execution of them, obtained a Share for himself and for his Troops in the Glory of the Action.


On the 8th Lieut. Colonel Hill1 at the head of the 9th Regiment was attacked near Fort Anne by

more than fix times his number, and repulfed the Enemy with great lofs, after a continued fire of three hours. In confequence of this Adtion Fort Anne was burnt and abandoned, and a Party of this Army is in polleffion of the Country on the other side.



I John Hill was commissioned Lieutenant in the 19th Foot on 4th August, 1756; obtained a company in the 13th Foot in December, 1758, and was advanced to the rank of Major in October, 1765. On the iith September, 1775, he became Lieutenant Colonel in the Army, and on the 10th November of the same year was promoted to be Lieutenant Colonel of the 9th Foot, then under orders for Canada. This regiment formed, on arriving in that country, part of the 2nd brigade under Brig. Hamilton and was cantoned in the settlements back of Montreal until the opening of this disastrous campaign. On the 7th of July, 1777, he took post with his regiment at Fort Anne, where he was attacked by the Americans in considerable force. Col. Hill gained great honor by his conduct in this action, for the enemy finding, after repeated attacks, that they could not force him in front endeavored to surround his men. This movement he however prevented by changing his ground with great calmness and bravery in the very heat of action, and after a fight of three hours obliged the Americans to retreat, leaving some thirty prisoners and the colors of the New Hampshire regiment in the hands of the 9th regiment.1 Lt. Col. Hill participated in the other engagements in this campaign and signed the parol at Cambridge (Mass.), in December, 1777. He became a Colonel in the Army in 1782, and continued with the 9th until the Summer of 1783, when he retired from the Army. His name is among the subscribers to Capt. Anbury's book in 1789.



1 Gen. Wilkinson in his Memoirs, p. 190, gives a somewhat different version of this affair, as follows : " The 9th regiment, under Lieut. Col. Hill, was sent in purfuit of Col. Long and his detachment, consisting of the invalids and convalescents, with his regiment, about 150 strong, making in the whole four or five hundred men. Col. Long, finding himself pressed, advanced and met Lieut. Colonel Hill, and an action ensued, in which the British officer claimed the victory; but it is a fact, that the 9th regiment had been beaten, and was retreating, and but for the entire failure of Col. Long's Ammunition, the Lieutenant-Colonel must have been made priloner, as well as Captain Montgomery of that regiment, who was wounded and left on the field, when, as Gen. Burgoyne tells us, "Col. Hill found it necessary to change his position in the heat of action," but in truth, when his corps was obliged to retreat, and Colonel Long, for want of ammunition, could not pursue him."



These rapid succcesses, after exciting a proper sense of what we owe to God, entitle the Troops in General to the warmest praise; and in particular distinction is due to Brigadier General Fraser, who by his Conduit and Bravery, supported by the fame qualities in the Officers and Soldiers under his Command, effected an exploit of material Service to the King, and of signal honour to the Profession of Arms.


This Corps have the further Merit of having supported fatigue and bad weather, without bread and without murmur.


Divine Service will be performed on Sunday morning next at the head of the Line, and at the head of the Advanced Corps, and at sunset on the same day, a feu de joye will be fired with Cannon and fmal Arms at Ticonderoga, Crown Point, the Camp at Skeinesborough, and the Camp at Castleton, and the Post of Breemen's Corps. These Orders will be read to every Battalion by the Commanding Officers. Major General Reidesel will have them conveyed to the Detached parts of the Left Wing. And Brigadier General Hamilton will have them conveyed to Crown Point.


A Return to be sent to Head Quarters this afternoon, of what wounded Officers and men are in a condition to be moved to the Hospital at Ticonderoga.


The General Officers will send an Account to Mr. Rousseau, Commissary to the Staff, of the number of Rations they would chuse to be daily supplied with.


The Regiments that have Volunteers serving with them, will send in a List of those gentlemen's names this afternoon, to the Deputy Adjutant General, mentioning when they joined, and by whom recommended.


The British and German Brigades, Advanced Corps and Reserve, with the Reidesel Dragoons, are to be compleated with powder and ball and paper to make up Musquet Cartridges to 100 Rounds a man according to the establishied Orders. Return to be sent in tomorrow morning to Major General Phillips of what Ball is wanting to compleat every Corps, and what Powder and Paper to make up the ball into Cartridges, in order that these Articles be sent from the Magazine at Ticonderoga immediately.


It must have been observed how difficult it is for Magazines to follow the rapid movements of the Army, and it is not doubted but the utmosf Care will be taken of the store of Powder and ball with each Regiment.


Camp at Skeinesborough House,

11th July, 1777

Parole, Eloisa. Countersign, Italy.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Colonel Sutherland.


All the Cattle to be delivered in to the hands of Mr. Assistant Commissary Mackenizie, who is to make an equal partition of them alive through the whole Army, taking Receipts from the Quarter Masters of the several Regiments for as many days' Provision as their respective lots, upon a fair computation may be supposed to afford. This distribution of Cattle, with the computation, to be reported as soon as it is done. All Cattle brought to any detached Corps of the Army, or any of the Advanced Posts, or driven in by Order, are to be forwarded to the Commissary General at Head Quarters. This is to be a Standing Order unless where the distance is too great, to be supplied from the regular Magazines. In that case the Commanding Officers will make a report of the Cattle they have detained for the immediate subsistence of their Corps or Detachments; and the Brigade Commissaries will give proper receipts to the Inhabitants.


The Return for Ammunition is to be sent by Brigades, for the British, and Major General Reidesel will send a General Return for the Left Wing. Thsfe Returns to be sent in today, and as soon as possible.


Camp at Skeinesborough House, 12th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Abelard. Countersign, Reading.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.


It is observed that the injunctions given before the Army took the Field relative to the Baggage of Officers have not been complied with, and that the Regiments in General are encumbered with much more Baggage than they can possibly be supplied with means of conveying when they quit the Lakes and Rivers. Warning is therefore again given to the Officers to convey by the Batteaux which will soon return to Ticonderoga, the Baggage that is not indispensably necessary to them, or, upon the first sudden movement, it must inevitably be left upon the ground.


Such gentlemen as served in America the last War may remember that the Officers took up with Soldiers' Tents, and often consined their Baggage to a Knapsack for months together. When opportunity shall offer to carry forward the Baggage that shall be lodged at Ticonderoga, so as not to interfere with the transport of Magazines, the Lieut. General will be happy to contribute to the convenience and comfort of the Officers.


Lord Viscount Pctersham is appointed to act as Aid de Camp to Lieut. General Burgoyne, and is to be obeyed accordingly.

Govern. Skeine1 is appointed to act as Commissary, to administer the Oath of Allegiance, and to grant Certificates of Protection to such Inhabitants as sue properly for the same, and to regulate all other matters relative to the Supplies and Assistances that shall be required from the Country or voluntarily brought in.


Mr. Hoakesly is appointed Waggon Master to the Army.



1 Philip Skene, was styled Lieut. Governor of Crown Point and Ticonderoga, &c. See vol. I of this Scries, p. 106, for a Biographical sketch of him.



Divine Service at the head of the Right Wing at 10 o'clock tomorrow, and at the head of Brig. General Fraser s Corps at 1 2 o'clock.


Tomorrow being set apart as a day of rejoicing, all working Parties are to be remitted, except such as may be necessary for the cleanliness of the Camp. Should the weather be fair the Tents are to be struck at five in the evening tomorrow, and the Troops to form for the Feu de joye an hour before Sunset, in order of Battle, the Right Wing; taking up the ground according to the Orders of the 8th Inftant. And General Fraser s Corps taking up the ground allotted in that day's Orders to the Left Wing.


After the Feu de joye the Tents are to be pitched again.


Captain Gardner is going to England. Officers who have Letters to send will leave them at Head Quarters before Orderly time the 14th instant.


Camp at Skeinesborough House, 13th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Dorothy. Countersign, Winchejler.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Irivmg.


The weather being wet the Tents are not to be struck. And the Troops will form in the Front instead of the Line of Battle. The firing will begin with the Cannon, and then to be taken from Brigadier General Fraser's Corps.


A Subaltern and 25 men to go tomorrow morning early to General Reidesel's Camp at the River near Castleton to Conduct the Army horses to Skeinesborough.


If there are any sick that are likely to recover sooner in the General Hospital at Ticonderoga than in Camp, the Brigades will send in a Return of them immediately.


The Corps on the Left of the River will take the Duties on this side the water.


A working Party to be furnished tomorrow morning at day break, to make roads and communications towards Fort Anne, and also to draw Batteaux over the carrying place into the Creek. Whatever number of men the Quarter Master General shall require for these Duties Frasers Corps and the Line will furnish.


Camp at Skeinesborough House, 14'h July, 1777.

Parole, St. Jqfeph. Countersign, Durham.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lieut. Colonel Hill.


The Brigades will send off their Sick reported according to yesterday's Order, to the General Hospital at Ticonderoga, in Batteaux, under the care of an Officer. The party that conduct them will return immediately to Camp, leaving the Batteaux at Ticonderoga, except what are necessary for the men to return in.


It having been reported that the Soldiers straggle from Camp after Gun firing, and that many disorders have been committed by them; this being contrary to all Military rule and good discipline, every Soldier is strictly forbid to quit the Camp after Retreat beating. The Brigadiers will give the strongest Orders on this head, and the Commanding Officers of Regiments will be answerable for those orders being obeyed.


No Soldier, either of the Advanced Corps, or of the Right Wing, to pass the Bridge at night. The Quarter Guards of both Camps are to send Patroles round the Camp from Gun firing to daylight, who are to make prisoners all Soldiers they find straggling about. And the Commanding Officers of Regiments are desired to have the Rolls called at uncertain hours of the night, that they may have immediate notice of all absent men.


Camp at Skeinesborough House, 15th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Alexander. Countersign, Weymouth.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lieut. Colonel Lind.1



1 John Lind was at this time Lieutenant-Colonel commanding the 20th Foot. Having entered the army he was commissioned in December, 1755, Lieutenant in the 34th Foot, which regiment sustained a siege at Fort St. Phillip in 1756, and formed part of the expedition against Belleisle in 1760, on the 12th January of which year Mr. Lind obtained a company. He became Major of the regiment in 1771, and on the 6th January, 1776, was commissioned Lieutenant-Colonel of the 20th Foot, under orders for Canada. He was wounded in two different actions during this campaign. His name is attached to the parole signed by the British officers at Cambridge, Mass., 13th December, 1777. In 1782 he received the brevet rank of Colonel; was raised to the rank of Major General in Octobcr, 1783, and died May 19, 1795.



Camp at Skeinesborough House, 16th July, 1777.

Parole, St, Silvestre. Countersign, Devon.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forster.1

The Army to receive four days Provisions. The working Parties and covering Party to be continued till further Orders.


1 George Forster. This Officer servcd in Germany with the 8th Foot, in which he was commissioned a Lieutenant 26th September, 1757. He afterwards served in America, and obtained his Company 25th December, 1770. In the early stage of the Revolution the head quarters of his regiment was at Niagara with detachments at other posts. Capt. Forster was slationed at Oswegatchie (now Ogdenlburgh) in the fore part of 1776. To dislodge a party of Americans, of three hundred and ninety men, who had taken post at the Cedars, above Montreal, he with two subalterns and one hundred and twenty-six men, and one hundred and twenty Indians, were detached on the 11th of May to the attack of that post. Proceeding on his march, he learnt on the 17th, that the Americans were ignorant of his approach, and that if speedily attacked, the whole party might be surprised. The next day he landed at Point au Diable, six miles from the Church of the Cedars, and proceeded under the cover of a thick wood; when within a mile of the Fort, he halted the detachment to make the necessary dispositions for attack. One division was ordered to take possession of the wood, and to penetrate as near as possible to the enemy, when another party of Indians were placed at the Falls, at the entrance of the Cascade, to cut off the communication with the Island of Montreal. This party fell in with a detachment of the garrison returning from the Cascades with provisions, who fled to the Fort, and carried the first intelligence of Capt. Forster's approach. Capt. Forster sent a flag, demanding the surrender of the Fort, to which Major Butterfield requested four hours to consider of it. Capt. Forster, conceiving that the object was to gain time, and having learnt that an Officer of the Americans had been sent to Montreal for a reinforcement sent a second flag, stating that the Indians were at present under his command, but that if the Fort did not surrender, and any of them were killed by further resistance, he could not answer for the consequenccs. The Commandant, in answer to this demand, agreed to surrendcr the Fort, on condition, however, that the garrison should retire to Montreal, which Capt. Forster not consenting to, a redoubt was thrown up on the edge of the wood, at five hundred yards distance from it. On the morning of the 19th of July, he advanced within one hundred and twenty yards of the Fort, and commenced a heavy fire of musketry, until twelve o'clock, when the American Commandant surrendered, on condition of sparing their lives, and preserving their baggage from plunder. As Captain Forster was informed the next day, that Major Sherborne, with one hundred men, was advancing from Montreal, he ordered one hundred Indians to take posession of the woods on both sides of the road, and to attack the detachment as it advanced. An action ensued, which only continued about ten minutes, when the Americans surrendered, and were brought to the Fort by the Indians, who had ressolved on putting every one of them to death. Captain Forster remonstrated with them on this inhuman conduct, and at length, by his persuasions, and by presents, effected their release. Capt. Forfter then left the Cedars, on his way down the river, and on his arrival at Vaudreuil, was informed that Colonel Arnold, with a strong party, had advanced as far as La Chine from Montreal, and had with him six hundred men, treble the number of Forster's party. Forster, upon hearing this, did not push on, and Arnold apprized of the weakness of Forster's party, marched to meet him. On their approach, the latter formed in three divisions on three several points of land that stretched out into the river. They had no sooner taken post, than they were attacked on all sides, but defended themselves so well, that the Americans were defeated, and retired to St. Anne's, on the Island of Montreal. Capt. Forfter, encumbered with his prisoncrs, proposed a cartel, which Arnold readily assenting to, on the 27th of May, an exchange was effected for two Majors, nine Captains, twenty Subalterns and four hundred and forty-thrce Soldiers. Four American Captains were sent to Quebec as hostages, and they remained until the prisoners were duly exchanged. The cartel however was broken by Congress, under the pretence that Capt. Forster had conducted himself towards the prisoners in a cruel and inhuman manner. In justice to Capt. Forster, there was not the smallest foundation for such a charge. (Smith's History of Canada,ii, 135-140) On the 5th November, 1776,  he became Major of the 21ft Fuzileers, svVi' Sutherland (supra, p. 17), and at the end of this campaign ac companicd the Convention troops to Cambridge, Mafs., when he was admitted to parole. He was advanced to the rank of Lieutenant-- Colonel in ihc Army in 1782, and  of the 66th regiment 31st December, 1784. His name disappears from the Army List in 1787.




The Second Brigade will send their spare Baggage off to Ticonderoga tomorrow morning, Lieut. Valancy, Assistant Quarter Master General, will regulate the spare Batteaux for this purpose. These Batteaux to be brought back as fall as possible, in order that the First Brigade may take theirs down, who will leave them at Ticonderoga, except what will be necessary to bring the men back to Camp,


Camp at Skeinesborough House, 17th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Louija. Countersign, Lincoln.

Field Officer Britih Picquet, Lt. Col. Sutherland.


Camp at Skeinesborough House, 18th July, 1777.

Parole, St. George. Countersign, Dorset.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.


Each Regiment to send to the Adjutant General the names of their petty suttlers and other followers not servants.


All persons desirous of establishiing Huts or Tents, in the rear of the Army, for the sale of useful Commodities, are to apply to the Adjutant General1, in order that their characters, and the nature of their Traffick may be inquired into; and any person presuming to Traffick with the Troops without a proper permit in writing, or who shall abuse such permit by retailing Liquors to Soldiers or Indians, will be punished with severity.



1 Major Robert Kingston, of whom see post.



The Disturbance of the 16th Inst. between fome British and German Soldiers, was occasioned by Liquor, and one of the greatest principles of Military Order was fo far forgot by some British Soldiers, that a Guard was insulted.


Any conduct for the future, whether of British German, that shall tend to obftruct the Harmony which has hitherto so happily reigned between the two Nations, and which must continue to subsist among brave Troops serving in the same cause, unless violated by intoxication or misapprehenfion, will be punished as a Crime the most fatal to the success and honour of the Campaign. A Captain's Guard with the Colours ot the oldest Regiment to mount tomorrow upon the Congress with the Indian Nations. This Guard is to be at the Indian Camp by half past eight tomorrow morning.


The Inspector of the Hospital having represented that two women from each Battalion of the Army will be absolutely necessary to take care of the Sick and Wounded, the Commanding Officers of Corps will give their Directions accordingly.


Ten Batteaux with 40 Men to attend at the Commissary's Store, to bring Provisions from the Row galley. A Serjeant and eighteen men also to be at the Commissary's Store, to take on shore the Provisions and to arrange them. This order to be continued every morning at 5 o'clock, till the Provisions are all landed.


Camp at Skeinesborough House, 19th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Barbara. Countersign, Blandford.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Irwing.


The Germans will receive their Ammunition according to the Orders of the l0th and 11th Instant, from the Artillery, beginning tomorrow morning at 6 o'clock.


A working party of one hundred men, one Captain, Subalterns and Non Commissioned Officers in proportion, to parade tomorrow morning at 4 o'clock, each with his Blanket and two days Pro- visions. Captain Lawes will meet the Party at the Bridge and conduct them. General Fraser's Corps will furnish a covering party of a Captain, Subalterns, Non Commissioned Officers and 50 men.


Camp at Skeinesborough House, 20th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Timothy. Countersign, Sarum.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Colonel Hill.


A working party of 100 men with proper Officers will parade at 4 o'clock this afternoon to draw some Batteaux over the carrying place. General Fraser's Corps will furnish this party.


Eight days' Provisions for the Corps of Savages, Canadian Volunteers, &c. under Major Campbell to be delivered this afternoon to their Commissary that it may be stowed on board their Batteaux immediately afterwards.


The next delivery of Provisions will be salt meat, in order to preserve all the Cattle alive for the next movement of the Army. Four days' Provisions to be issued to the Troops to the 24th inclusive.


Camp at Skeinesborough House,

21st July, 1777.

Parole, St. Cecilia. Countersign, Marlborough.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


Camp at Skeinesborough House,

22nd July, 1777

Parole, St. Clement. Countersign, Calne.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forster.


The Line will relieve all the Posts occupied by General Fraser's Corps, with the same numbers at Sunset this evening.


Camp at Skeinesborough House,

23rd July, 1777.

Parole, St. Bridget. Countersign, Chippenham.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Colonel Sutherland.


The Prisoners of War are to be conveyed from Skeinefborough to Ticonderoga tomorrow morning early under the Escort of an Officer and twenty men Britifh.


The Sick necessary to be sent to the General Hospital to go at the same time.


When the Army moves, a Detachment consisting of fifty British, fifty Germans, and fifty Provincials will be left posted at Skeinefborough for some days; and that the Battalions may be weakened as little as possible, the Detachments are to be composed of the Convalescents, and men least able to march; and this Notice is given in hopes that some men in slight cases of the Flux, designed for the Hofpital, may upon examination be found capable of this Duty.


Brigadier General Powell will inform the Quarter Master General this afternoon of the number of Batteaux necessary for the above purpose, as far as regards the British. General Reidesel will regulate the proper number of Batteaux for the sick of the Left Wing, and send them from the East Creek.


As many Carts of the Army as can be put in repair, with two horses to each, and proper Conductors, to be ready to proceed tomorrow under such Escort as Brigadier Powell shall regulate according to their numbers. The Escort, after conducting the Horses and Carts to the Neighbourhood of Fort Anne, will remain as a Guard upon them till the Army comes up. They will therefore take with them their Knapsacks, Blankets, and three days' Provisions. The Conductors are to take in their Carts grass for one day, and a portion of the Corn now in Store, according to their numbers, taking care to preserve the Corn till the horses come upon the hard work.


Lieut. Atherton is appointed to act as Provost to this Army, and is at all times to have the Guard of a Serjeant and 10 British, and a Serjeant and the same number of Germans. This Guard to be relieved once a fortnight. And at the marking of every new encampment, a proper house or Ground for the Provost is always to be allotted in the Rear of the Army.


Besides Patroles of the Provost to be made daily, and occalionally at night, to preserve the regularity and cleanliness of the Camp, he has Orders to enforce in the strictest manner, the Regulation of the 18th Inst. relative to the vending of Spirituous Liquors by the Sutlers or any other followers of the Army. For this purpose he is directed diligently to examine all Huts, Tents, or other abodes in the rear of the Encampment, and wherever any Person shall be found trafficking without a permit from the Adjutant General, or (having such permit) of retailing spirituous Liquors to Soldiers, Women or Savages, or presuming to sell such liquors to Servants of Officers or other Persons whatsoever without a Certificate in writing signed by a Commission Officer, the Provoft is instantly to make the Offender Prisoner, to have all the Liquors belonging to him or her destroyed, and burn the dwelling.


This order to be forthwith made known by the Provost to all the followers of the Army encamping out of the Line. As soon as the Provost's Guard is established, the Prisoners are to be delivered over to him, and the main Guard will cease. The German Dragoons will furnish the Serjeant and 10 men for the Provost's Guard till the Left Wing arrives.


A Subaltern and 25 men of the Picquet to remain upon the old ground, the Field Officer will post the rest of the Picquet upon the Left, where the Picquet of the Advanced Corps was posted. Each Regiment will give a Batteau to Lieut. Valancy1, Assistant Quarter Master General.


The Army to be Vidtualled to the first of August.


The Officers for the Detachment named in yesterday's Orders to remain at Skeinesborough are to be one Field Officer, one Captain and one Subaltern British, one Captain, one Subaltern German, and two Subalterns of the Provincial Corps.


As the German part of the Detachment cannot join till tomorrow night, the British are to relieve the Guards upon the Cattle at the Red house this evening, which is to confilt of a Serieant, Corporal and twelve. The Field OlScer will receive his instructions from the Adjutant General this evening.



1 George Preston Vallancy entered the army in -- and was commissioned Lieutenant in the 62rd regiment 1st September, 1771, and acted as Assistant Quartermaster General throughout this campaign. He was advanced to the rank of Captain 18th Auguft, 1778, and went on half pay in 1784. He  was appointed to the 46th or South  and Devonshire Foot, on the 31st May, 1787, and continued with that regiment until 1792, when his name  dsfappears from the Army lists.



The Provisions etc. of the Right Wing, Tents excepted, to be loaded this afternoon . The General to beat tomorrow morning instead of the Revallie at three o'clock; the Tents are then to be put on board, and the Batteaux to proceed immediately under a proper Escort. The Assembly will beat an hour after, and the Troops to march.


The Reidesel Dragoons make the Advanced Guard.


The Rear Guard is to be composed of a Captain and one Company from the Regiment in Rear. The Provost's Guard to follow a quarter of a mile in the Rear of the whole, and take up all Stragglers.


The Officer commanding the Escort of the Boats will be answerable that no Soldier or other person go ashore till they arrive at the place of Destination, great enormities having been committed at different times upon the People of the Country for want of this being attended to. The Provincials will march in the Rear of the British. The Carts are to follow in between the main Body and the Rear Guard. Those Regiments that wish to receive money on account of the ensuing Muster, will send their Pay masters to the Deputy Pay Master General at Ticonderoga for the money want. And will rejoin their Regiments by the first Escort over Lake George.


Field Officer for the Command at Skeinesborough, Major Irwing.


Camp at Fort Anne,

25th July, 1777

Parole, St. Rosalind. Countersign, Canterbury.


His Excellency Sir Guy Carleton has been pleased to make the following Promotions in the Army at the Recommendation of Lieut. General Burgoyne :


9th Regiment, Ensign Joseph Fish1 to be Lieutenant, vice Lieut. Westrop2 killed, dated 14th July. Volunteer Thomas Dcan3 of the 31st Regiment to be Ensign, vice Fish.


24th Regiment, Captain William Agnew4 to be Major, vice Major Grant4 killed. Captain Lieut.



1 Joseph Fish was commissioned Ensign in the 9th Foot 7th October, 1775, and was advanced to the rank of Lieutenant 14th July, 1777. He continued in the fervice until after the peace of 1783.


2 Richard Westropp was appointed Ensign in the 9th Foot 14th March, 1772, and Lieutenant 1st January, 1774.


3 Thomas Dean was commissioned Ensign in the 9th Foot, 14th July, 1777; became Lieutenant in Scptember, 1781, and Capt. Lieut, in 1787. His name is dropped in 1793.


4 William Agnew was commissioned Lieutenant in the 24th regiment in 1756; became Captain-

Lieutenant in 1763, and obtained his company 20th May, 1767. He was promoted to be Major on 14th July, 1777, and was twice wounded in this campaign. His name is attached to the Cambridge parole, dated 13th December, 1777. He became Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment in 1782, but continued so only the fore part of 1783.


5 Robert Grant was commissioned a Lieutenant in the 620 (afterwards 77th) or 1stt Highland battalion, known generally as Mon gomery's Highlanders, on the organization of that regiment in 1757, and served in the old French war, at Fort du Oucfne, Ticonderoga, &c. He obtained his company in in 1762, and exchanged into the 40th regiment in 1764; became Major of the 24th Foot 5th March, 1775, and was killed at the battle of Hubbardton, July 7th, 1777. On this occasion he commanded the advanced guard. About five o'clock in the morning, says Anbury, we came up to the enemy who were busily employed in cooking their provisions. Major Grant, of the 24th regiment, who had the advanced guard, attacked their picquets, which were soon driven in to the main body. From this attack we lament the death of this very gallant and brave officer, who in all probability fell a viftim to the great disadvantagcs wc experience peculiar to this unfortunate contest, thofe of the riflemen. Upon his coming up with the enemy, he got upon the stump of a tree to reconnoitre, and had hardly given the men orders to fire, when he was struck by a rifle ball, tell off the tree, and never uttered another yllable.




George Coote1 to be Captain of a Company, vice Agnew. Lieut. Thomas Scott2 to be Captain Lieut.



1 George Coote was appointed to a lieutenancy in the 98th regiment 28th Oct. 1760. This regiment was reduced in 1763, and on 16th Jan. 1765, Mr. Coote passed into the 24th by purchase. He was ordered to Canada with his regiment in 1776, having been promoted to the command of a Company on 2d March of that year, and went on half pay after the peace of 1783, and to remained until 1797, after which his name disappears from the Army list.


2 Thomas Scott was appointed to an Ensigncy in the 24th Foot the 20th May, 1761; he joined in Germany, and served the whole of the campaign of 1762, carried the colors at the action of Willimstall or Grabiniton, and also at the attack of the British picquets on the Fulda, under the command of Major Hume of the 25th regiment, which the 24th supported. After the war he served at Gibraltar for nearly six years with the exception of one year's leave of absence. The 7th June, 1765, he was appointed Lieutenant; he accompanied the regiment to America in the Spring of 1776, and served that campaign and the following one under General Burgoyne, with a company of Marksmen attached to a large body of Indians, during which there was a variety ot very fatiguing and hard service. On the 14th July, 1777, he was promoted to be Capt. Lieut, of his regiment, and in most of this campaign employed on the outpost duty, which was done so much to the satisfaction and approbation of his commanding officer, Brigadier General Fraser, that he was twice thanked in public orders; he was in the action of Freeman's Farm, where a very considerable loss was sustained in officers and men was soon after sent in disguise through the enemy's country with dispatches from General Burgoyne to Sir Harry Clinton, and for which purpose he was particularly selected out by Brig. General Fraser, and which he effected with much difficulty and great personal risk of being taken and hanged as a spy, having at the same time suffered the extreme of hunger and cold. He was appointed the 8th October, 1777, Captain in the 53rd regiment, then in Canada, with which he served the remaining part of the war; he was upon two expeditions from Canada to the Mohawk river, under the command of Sir John Johnston, which were attended with great fatigue, and much harrassed by the enemy, for which service he was selected by Sir Frederick Haldimand. He commanded the Fort and Island of Michilimackinac with its extensive dependencies for a year, having been sent there for the purpose of carrying into effect reforms ordered to be made by government, as well as to correct abuses which had crept into the Indian department. This he did to the entire satisfaction of Lord Dorcherter, at that time commanding in Canada, and to the company of merchants trading to that country. He returned to Europe twelve months before his regiment in 1788. In 1791 he served six months during the Spanish armament with a detachment of the 53rd regiment on board his Majesty's ship Hannibal, commanded by Sir John Colpoys; accompanied the regiment to the continent in the Spring of 1793 under Sir Ralph Abercrombie; was in the Affair at Famars, served the whole of the siege of Valenciennes and of Dunkirk, and was in the whole of that day's attack where the Austrian General D'Alton was killed; also at the siege of Nieuport, where he was promoted to the rank of Major for his exertions in the defence thereof (13th November, 1793); was in the action of the 24th of May, and was wounded that day in the inside of the right thigh, by a musket ball. The 27th October, 1794, he was appointed to the Lieutenant Colonelcy of the 94th (Scotch brigade) regiment by purchase, and went with it to Gibraltar in 1795, to the Cape of Good Hope in 1796, where he was Deputy Adjutant General to the forces, which situation he relinquished in order to go with his regiment to India in 1798. He served the whole of the campaign of 1799, in the Mysore country, commanded a native brigade, was at the siege and taking of Scringapatam, and in consequence of ill health returned to Europe in 1800. The 1st January, 1801, he was appointed Colonel by brevet in September, 1802. Inspecting Field Officer of the Edinburgh recruiting district; in 1803 Deputy Inspector General of the Recruiting Service in North Britain; in August, 1804, Brigadier General; 25th April, 1808, Major General on the staff of North Britain, and served as such until 4th June, 1813, when he was promoted to Lieut. General, in consequence of which his appointment on the staff ceased. He died in 1814.



vice Coote. Ensign Jphn Ferguson to be Lieutenant, vice Scott. Volunteer Lindsay1 to be Ensign, vice Ferguson.2


29th Regiment, Enfign Dowling3 of the 47th Regiment to be Lieutenant, vice Lieutenant Douglas4 killed. All dated as above, 14th July, 1777.


Fort Ann, 26th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Matthew. Countersign, Windburn.

Field Officer British, Lieut. Colonel Hill. It being proper to keep the Advanced Corps compleat in their present situation, the Right Wing of the Line is to furnish a party of 150 men with one Captain, two Subalterns, and proper number of Non Commission Officers to conduct the boats of



1 Wat. Crymble Lindsay was promoted to a lieutenancy 24th April, 1782, and did not obtain any higher rank in the army. His name appears for the lafl time in the Army list of 1787.


2 John Ferguson was commissioned Ensign in the 24th regiment 3lst August, 1774, and was promoted to a lieutenantcy as in the text. His name was dropped in 1783.


3 James Dowling was appointed Ensign in the 47th regiment 18th June, 1775, and was transferred and promoted to the 29th as above. He went out in 1781.


4 James Douglass, of the 29th regiment, entered the army in 1773 and was promoted to be Lieutenant 30th June of the following year. He was wounded at the battle of Hubbardton, and as he was carried off the field received a ball directly through his heart.




Brigadier Fraser's Corps to Skeinesborough, where they are to deliver them into the hands of Capt. Harrington.1 This party is to return to Camp as soon as the boats are delivered. Fifty of the above party are to take their Arms with them.


All the Ox teems that are with the German Troops at Skeinesborough, and likewile all the Horses and Carts not the private Property of Officers, to be forwarded as soon as possible after the receipt of this Order, to the Waggon Master at the Camp of Fort Anne. All Teems, Horses and Carts under the same description in the hands of the British (the Advanced Corps excepted) to be delivered into the Hands of the Waggon Master forthwith, in order that he may form a proper distribution for the next movement of the Army. The Provisions must be first attended to, the men's Tents next, and the Officer's Tents and Baggage afterwards.


It being impossible to supply sufficient Carriages to effect the above purposes at once, and the Service at the same time requiring as speedy a movement as the nature of the Roads will permit, the Troops must expect to be some days without their usual conveniences. The Commanding Officers will therefore take care that three days' provifions be forthwith cooked.



1Henry Harrington entered the army in 1759 as Ensign in the 5th Foot, serving then in Germany; was appointed Lieutenant 2d April, 1762, and went on half pay in 1763. He was recalled to active service in 1772, and appointed to the 20th Foot, and on the 28th March, 1777, was promoted to a company in the 62nd. We find his name in the Army list of 1786 for the last time.



The Batteaux of the Right Wing to be unloaded as foon as they arrive in order that they may be returned to Skeenefborough.


Camp at Fort Anne,

27th July, 1777.

Parole, St. George. Countersign, Sherborn.


Field Officer British, Lieut. Colonel Lind.

The Right Wing will be in readiness to march tomorrow, in the same order as from Skeinesborough; the Reidesel Dragoons to form the Advanced Guard, &c.


Camp at Fort Anne, 28t July, 1777.

Parole, St. Bernard. Countersign, Biddeford.

Field Officer British Picquet.


The four British Regiments will march this evening or tomorrow morning, as Brigadier General Powell chuses.


The Brigade Major will get a Return of the number of Collar makers in each Regiment, and of all such men as can assist in making Harness for Carts or Sleys.



Camp at Pitch Pine Plains,

29th July, 1777.

Parole St. Edward. Countersign, Exmouth.

British Picquet Field Officer, Major Forbes.


The Advanced Corps of the Army will encamp tomorrow on the heighth beyond Fort Edward. The Indians, Canadians, and such of the Provincials as are arrived, in the front, and upon the Left Flank of the Advanced Corps. The Head Quarters will be at the Red house near Fort Edward, covered by the Reidesel Dragoons, who will encamp in the Plain. The Right Wing of the Line will encamp on the rising ground on this side the Plain. The Transport of Provisions and Camp equipage of the Advanced Corps, and the Right Wing, having been greatly impeded by want of punctuality in the arrival of the oxteams ordered from Skeinesborough, it becomes necessary to halt the Left Wing at Fort Anne, till that Service is performed during this halt. Major General Reidesel will order proper Detachments to convey to Skeinesborough all the Batteaux from Fort Anne, and after delivering them there, those Detachments will rejoin their respective Corps.


The Provincials and Canadians who are not arrived, will march this afternoon under proper Officers of their own, to Fort Anne, in order to assist in the above Service, and afterwards to assist in transporting the Batteaux over the carrying place at Skeinestorough, and from thence to Ticonderoga.


And measures are taking for proving them with Arms to be delivered there, with which they will afterwards join their Corps by the Route of Lake George. The Commanding Officers of Corps are to be answerable that the Carts employed in the Regimental Baggage are not overloaded, the slightness of the Carts and the preservation of the horses renders a strict attention in this point of the greatest consequence, and the Service will suffer much less by a delay of time, than from the inconveniences attending broken Carriages and exhausted Cattle. The same order holds good in the fullest sense with regard to all Officers or Commissaries charged with the Transport of Provisions.


The Brigadiers General will place safe Guards wherever there is Indian or other Corn or good Grass in the neighborhood of their Encampment, to preserve it for the use of the Cattle of the Army.


When any Body of Canadians or Regulars may occasionally be ordered to join the Savages, they are to be under the Command of Major Campbell unless the Officer of the Regular Troops should be of Superior Rank. Major Campbell is to receive Direftions from Brigadier General Fraser till further Orders.


Camp at Fort Edward,

30th July, 1777.

Parole, St. Gervas. Countersign, Newcajlle.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Colonel Hill.


Each Regiment of the Line will turn out 20 men, burn and bury all old meat, rubbish, and every other nuisance in or near the Camp, under the Direction of the Provost:. This is not confined merely to the ground where the Troops are encamped on, but extended to every nuisance and unwholefome thing about the Camp.


Twenty men are to be fent immediately with fpades and pickaxes to Head Quarters to burn and bury all old meat, rubhish and every other nuisance there.


Camp at Fort Edward,

31st July, 1777.

Parole, St. Basil. Countersign, Lyons.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Colonel Lind.


The Picquet of the Reidesel Dragoons, consisting of an Officer and 24 men with Non Commission Officers in proportion, to be posted at the Fort to guard the ford there, and extend Centries in the to Major General Phillips1 Quarters on their



1 William Phillips was commissioned Captain in the Royal Artillery on 12th May, 1756, and  

afterwards distinguished himself in Germany. He commanded the Artillery at the battle of Minden in 1759, and received the particular thanks of Prince Ferdinand on that occasion with a present of one thousand crowns as a reward for his services, and in the following year also distinguished himfslf in the bat tle of Warbourg. He was in return promoted in August, 1760, to the rank of brevet Lieutenant-Colonel in the Army; in 1768 received the sinecure appointment of Lieutenant-Governor of Windsor Castle, and in 1772, became Colonel in the Army. In January, 1776, he was commissioned Major General in the Army in America, and was attached to the expedition under Lieut. Gen. Burgoyne. In August he was gazetted full Major-General. Throughout this period he acted with valor, and on the surrender became a prisoner with the rest of the Army. On Burgoyne proceeding to England in May, 1778, Maj. General Phillips succeeded to the command of the Convention troops. In this trying position he at times exhibited evidences of a cholerick and impatient temper. He was finally exchanged in Nov. 1779, and returned to active service. In the Spring of 1781, he was detached from New York with a force of 2000 men to the relief of Brig. Gen. Arnold, then at the Chesapeake. He committed much damage in Virginia, and after a brief career, marked by all the devastations of war, he was seized by a fever on the 1st, and died at the residence of Mrs. Boiling, near Petersburg, on the 13th of May, 1781, whilst Gen. La Fayette was yet cannonading the place. His remains were deposited in the old Blandford Churchyard, where they still repose.



Right, and covering Head Quarters to the end of the Ifland upon their Left. They are to remain upon this Duty after day break, till the Fogs are quite cleared up, and then return to Camp.


Camp at Fort Edward,

1st August, 1777.

Parole, St. Thomas. Countersign, Barnet.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Colonel Sutherland.


The Standing Order respecting Stragglers from Camp is very ill obeyed. Soldiers have been feen at the distance of three miles. Some have very narrowly escaped being made prisoners, others have been fired upon by the Savages who supposed them to be Enemies or Deserters, and who certainly would have scalped them as such, had their shot succeeded.


The Officers will also recollect that the Order of the Camp at Crown Point for the Troops to get instantly under arms on the firing Four Guns, subsists during the Campaign, and that we are now within three miles of the Enemy. They will consequently take care never to be so far out of the way as to expose themselves to the censure of not being among the first at the head of the Lines in case of an Alert.


The rolls are to be called twice a day and once a night at inequal hours.


If fetching water is made an Excuse of Absence from roll calling, it becomes a reflection upon the Discipline of the Regiments, as that Duty, when the water is not close to the Camp, should be done like all other Duties beyond the Camp Colours, by Parties under the Charge of Non Commission Officers.


The Regiments will be in readiness to receive Provisions this afternoon at six o'clock from Mr. Commissary McKensie.


The Muster Rolls are to be prepared immediately; the Regiments will get their Instructions from Captain Campbell1,  29th Regiment, Deputy Commissary General of Musters.



1 Archibald Campbell entered as Ensign in the 29th Foot, known as one of the Irish regiments, on the 22nd June, 1756, and was advanced to the rank of Lieutenant 13th February, 1762. Though his regiment was sent to America in 1766, to enforce the odious measures of the ministry, and was subsequently involved in the memorable massacre which occurred in Boston in 1770, Mr. Campbell, who obtained his company 2nd of August, 1769, does not appear to have been mixed up with that unfortunate affair. The Grenadier company which he commanded failed from Spithead in H. M. ship lsis on the 11th March, 1776, and landed at Quebec on the 6th May. At the battle at Freeman's farm, Capt. Campbell (whom Anbury styles Major) was field officer of the day. He was appointed Major by brevet 17th November, 1780; Major of his regiment 22nd August, 1787; Lieut. Colonel of his regiment 5th December, 1792, and Colonel in the army 1795. After 1797, his name does not occur in the Army List.



Camp at Fort Edward,

2nd Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Sabine. Countersign, Berwick.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.


The Country people having brought in sheep for sale, Notice is given that Officers chusing to buy may purchase them.


Camp at Fort Edward,

3rd Aug. 1777.

Parole, Xavier. Countersign, Glamorgan.

Field Officer Britifli Picquet, Lieut. Colonel Hill.


The 21st Regiment is to be relieved tomorrow morning by a Regiment from the Left Wing, which Regiment will have two pieces of Cannon with it.


This Regiment will be relieved by the Regiment of Hesse Hanau, when that Regiment moves forward from St. Anne's.


Camp near Fort Edward,

4th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Adelaide. Countersign, Carnarvon

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Colonel Lind.


Camp near Fort Edward,

5th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. James. Countersign, Britole.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forster.


It appearing that there is still a misapprehension in some Corps of the Army respecting the carriage of Officer's Baggage, when the Service shall make it necessary to quit the River, it is from henceforward to be underslood that no provision has been made by the King's Orders, nor those of his Excellency Sir Guy Carleton for that purpose; nor is there any example of such being made, in any Service. The allowance of bat and forage money has been in the proportion of that granted the last and the present year to the Army in Canada.


Such Gentlemen therefore as have not understood this general System of the Service, will provide themselves by purchase as opportunities offer, always remembering that the prohibition againft purchasing from the Savages is still in force.


An Officer and 20 men with Non Commission Officers in proportion from the Line, will conduct all the Prisoners taken from the Enemy to Fort George, tomorrow morning.


Camp near. Fort Edward,

6th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Joseph. Countersign, Potton.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lieut. Col. Sutherland.


The Picquets of the Line, Regiment of Rhetz excepted, to march this afternoon at five o'clock on the road to Fort George in order to proceed at day break tomorrow morning to the ground that will be shown by Engineer Roberton1, where they are to cover and assist in working at the repair of the roads. The Regiments will supply Tents in proportion to the number of their respective men, which Tents are to be brought by five in the afternoon under proper charge to the following places, where Carriages will be ready to take them up. First Line British Right Flank of the 9th Regiment, Second Line British Right Flank of the 20th Regiment. The Germans to the Right Flank of their Encampment.


All the unarmed men of the Provincial Corps to march at the same time for the same purpose.


There is reason to believe that the Deserters from the 53rd Regiment have been scalped by the Savages. The general and faithful attachment of the Soldiers of this Army to the cause of the King, gives no apprehension of the Crime of Desertion spreading, nevertheless, to prevent the Stragghng from the Camp for the purpose of marauding, drunkenness, or other Disorders, leading to Desertion, it is positively ordered that a Report of absent men be sent to Head Quarters within one hour after each rollcalling, in order that parties of Savages may be immediately sent in pursuit, who have orders to scalp all Deserters.



1 John James Roberton was he advanced no higher than that commissioned 2nd Lieutenant in the grade, and his name appears for the Royal Engineers, 13th July, 1774; last time in the Army List of 1781.



A Commissary Serjeant from each Brigade to be sent to Mr. Commissary McKenzie, to assist him in the arrangement of Stores, till further Orders.


The Department allotted to Colonel Skeine by the Orders of the 12th July becoming too extensive and complicated to be executed by one person, Mr. Daniel Jones and others are appointed to act as his Assistants, and among them to constitute a Board or Office, a Quorum of which is to be three, to sit every morning at Head Quarters when the Army is not marching, to receive, discuss and regulate the applications of Inhabitants and other persons coming in from the Enemy, respecting Protections, sale of Cattle, enlistment, and all other purposes, taking care to form distinct Reports, to be laid before the Lieut. General of such cases as do not come within the limits of their Instruction to determine.


The design of this Institution is to prevent complaints, abuses, and irregularities, and mutually assist the demand of the King's Service, and the Protection of the well-affected. And all persons are to take notice and obey accordingly.


Camp near Fort Edward,

7th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Lucreece. Countersign, Burton.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Colonel Hill.


All ox teams, carts, horses and oxen belonging to the King and now with the different Regiments, are to be sent without delay to the Waggon Master General, near the Fort, in order to their being immediately employed in the Transport for the Army.


Lieut. Colonel Bailey of the 20th Regiment is appointed to act as Assistant Quarter Master General.


Camp near Fort Edward,

8th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Anne. Counterfign, Biggleswade.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Colonel Lind.


Camp near Fort Edward, | 9th Aug, 1777.

Parole, St. David. Countersign, Conway.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forster.


Brigadier General Powell is to relieve Brigadier General Hamilton in the command at Ticonderoga. The 53d Regiment will march tomorrow to relieve the 62nd Regiment at the same place; the return provision Carts will take their Camp Equipage, &c. Four Companies will embark at Fort George in the First return Boats, and the remaining four Companies are to wait for the boats that bring the 62d Regiment from Ticonderoga.


Captain Monin's Company is to march as soon as the 53rd Regiment arrives at Fort George to join the Advanced Corps of the Army. Captain Boucherville's1 Company to march to Fort George to replace Captain Monins Company.


Divine Service will be performed tomorrow at eleven o'clock at the head of the Line. There will be divine service at Head Quarters at the fame hour.


Camp near Fort Edward,

10th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Pierre. Countersign, Truro.

Field Officer British, Major Forbes.


The Soldier Tasselebend, condemned to suffer death by the sentence of a Court Martial for Desertion to the Enemy, is to be executed tomorrow morning at ten o'clock in the Front of the Regiment of Reidesel.



1 ReNe Antoine de Boucherville, son of Francois Pierre de Boucherville, author of Relation des Aventures de M. de Boucherville a son retour des Sioux en 1728 et 1729, and Miss Margaret Raimbault, was born at Cataracouy (now Kingston, C. W.), on the 12th February, 1735. He married at Montreal Mifs Madeleine Raimbault St. Blain on the 6th June, 1770, and had distinguished himself  in this war at the ficgc of St. Johns. He was afterwards member of the

Lcgislative Council of Canada, and filled the office of Grand Voyer, or Inspector of Roads. He died at Boucherville, near Montreal, on the 2d September, 1812.



The Picquets of the Line will alTemble tomorrow morning at half pall nine o'clock and march to the Front of the Regiment of Rcidejel to attend the Execution.

A General Court Martial to assemble tomorrow morning at the British Encampment for the Trial of William Sheen and John Dering, and such other Prisoners as may be brought before them. Lieut. Colonel Hill, President.


The 9th Regiment gives two Subalterns.

20th Regiment two Captains two Subalterns.

21th Regiment one Captain two Subalterns.

47th Regiment one Captain two Subalterns.


Captain Lindsay1 of the 9th Regiment is to a6l as Deputy Judge Advocate, Captain Craig being fick.


Any Detachment, party, or even one man, going from a Regiment, is to have a Certificate from the Commanding Officer of the time they or he may have been victualled to; as without fuch a Certificate no Provisions will be issued by any Commissary. This Order extends to the Naval Department, and to all Artificers, Drivers, and others attending the Army.



1 Waterhouse Lindsay entered The regiment continued in America the 9th regiment as Enfign 26th until 1 769, when he went to Ireland. January, 1761, served in the expedition against Belleisle, and was commissoned Lieutenant 31st July, 1762, in which year he served at the Havana; afterwards in Florida,


The regiment continued in America until 1769, when he went to Ireland. Mr. Lindsay obtained his company in 1772, and accompanied his regiment to Canada in 1776. His name is dropped in the Army List of 1782.


Camp near Fort Edward,

11th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Mathias. Countersign, Penzance.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


The Rev. Mr. Brudenel and Major Skeine are added to the Commissioners appointed to administer the Oath of Allegiance and grant Certificates of Protection to such of the Inhabitants as sue properly for the same, and to regulate all other matters relative to the Supplies and Assistances that shall be required from the Country, or voluntarily brought in, etc. etc.


Camp near Fort Edward,

12th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Luc. Countersign, Dartmouth.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.


Mr. Commissary McKenzie being gone forward to the Advanced Corps, Mr. Commissary McCullogh has the direcction of the Stores at Fort Edward. The Order of the 6th relative to the Commissary Serjeants, continues in force till the Stores are arranged.


Each Brigade will fend a Cooper to the Commiss to repair some Provisions Calks that have suffered much in the Transport.


Camp near Fort Edward,

13th Aug. 1777

Parole, St. John. Countersign, Ipswich.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.


The Army to receive Provisions this Afternoon to the 16th inclusive.


Such Batteaux as can be allotted to the Troops for the present Transport ot their Camp equipage will bedivided at five this afternoon, and the Qr. Master will attend to take charge of them. But it being exceedingly desirable that the Troops should be practiced in conctructing expeditiously such slight rafts as will serve for present purposes, the Commanding Officers of Corps will take this occasion to make the Experiment.


It was proved by the Advanced Corps in the transport three days ago, that rafts of about eighteen feet by nine were much more convenient than Batteaux in the shallows and narrows on this side Fort Miller.


The Army marches tomorrow by the Right in one Column. The General will beat at day break; the Quarter Mafters and Camp Colourmen to march at the same time.


When the ground of the Encampment falls upon the fame fpots where the Tents of any foregoing Troops have been pitched, the Quarter Mafters are to be responsible that all rubbish is burned, and the ground thoroughly cleared before the respective Corps arrive.


The Assembly to beat an hour after the General, and the Troops to march immediately after, having a proper number of men to load and work the Batteaux and Rafts.


All the Bat horses and carriages, such as are the perfonal property of Officers, are to follow in the rear of the Column. The Provost in the rear of the whole.


The General Court Martial of which Lieut. Colonel Hill was President is dissolved.


The Baron Salans of the 9th Regiment is to act in Capt. Frasers Corps till further Orders.


Mr. Munro is appointed to act as Captain of Batteaux in the Quarter Mafter General's Department.


Whereas two Barrels of Madeira Wine, three Barrels of Rum, one bag of Coffee, one bag of Barley, two kegs of Butter, and two rolls of Tobacco have been put clandestinely into the Provision Carts of the Army, and very properly reported by the Waggon Master General, the said Articles are to be received into the Public Stores by the Commissary, and to be issued according to future Orders.


Camp at Duer's House,

14th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Valentine. Countersign, Wootton.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lieut. Col. Hill.


The Bridge not being finished the hour of march cannot be ascertained, but the Army will hold

themselves in readiness to march tomorrow at a moment's warning.


After Orders.


A working party of one Captain, three fubalterns and one hundred men with proper Non Commission Officers to parade at day break tomorrow morning, and march immediately after, to the Lower Crane below the hill. This working party will take their instructions from Captain Lawes. For this party :


British -- Capt. 1, Subs. 2, Men. 70

German -- Subs. 1, Men 30


All Teams and Carts belonging to the King now with any of the Regiments to Head Quarters tomorrow morning at six o'clock.


Camp at Duer's House,

15'th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Theodosia. Countersign, Drury.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lieut. Colonel Lind.


The Army will hold themselves in readiness to march at a minute's warning.


Camp at Duer's House,

16th Aug. 1777

Parole, St. Lawrence. Countersign, Pittsburg.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forster.


The Quarter Masters of the Army to attend at four o'clock this afternoon to receive Provisions.


The General Court Martial of which Lieut. Colonel Hill was President have passed Sentence as follows upon the Prisoner William Sheen, Soldier in the 47th Regiment, tried for robbing Mr. William Johnson at Fort Edward on the 7th August.


It is the Opinion of the Court that the Prisoner is guilty of the Crime laid to his charge, being a breach of the second Article of the 20th Section of the Articles of War, and sentence him to receive one thousand Lashes. The Prisoner John Dering, Soldier in the 47th Regiment, tried at the same time for robbing Mr. William Johnson at Fort Edward on the 7th August, is also found guilty of the Crime laid to his Charge, being a breach of the second Article of the 20th Section of the Articles of War, is fsntenced by the Court to receive one thousand Lashes.


Lieut. General Burgoyne has been pleased to confirm both the above Sentences of the General Court Martial, and to order the same to be put in Execution.


A Subaltern and thirty men with Non Commission Officers in proportion of the British Picquet of this night are to march immediately after mounting, and to take pollession of the Bridge over the Hudson's River.


The Officer will divide his Party to secure both ends of the Bridge from any attempt of ill-designing people to injure it. As the Army passes tomorrow this Guard will fall into their respective Corps.


The Army will march tomorrow from their right, and in the same manner as the last march.


The last Regiment which passes the Bridge on the march tomorrow, will leave an Officer's Party to prevent the bat horses and carts which follow the Line of march from pressing in such numbers at a time as may endanger the Bridge. This Guard will remain till the Baggage is past, and then join the rear Guard of the Army, which will be furnishied as upon the last march.


The General to beat at day break, and the Quarter Masters and Camp Colourmen to march at the same hour; the Assembly to beat an hour after. The Line to be alert and march immediately.


A working party of one Captain, three Subalterns and one hundred men, with proper Non Commission Officers to be at the Rapids at Fort Miller tomorrow morning at four o'clock, and take their instrucctions from Capt. Lawes.1


British, Capt. 1, Subs. 2, Men, 70

German, Subs. 1, Men, 30



1 George Lavves entered the service as 2d Lieutenant in the 61st Foot, 22d November, 1756, which regiment formed part of the expedition againft the French West lndia Islands in 1759, at the close of which year he was promoted to a lieutenancy in the 75th. This corps served in the expedition against Belleisle (France) in 1761; and againft Martinico in 1762, when Mr. Lawes obtained his company. He was afterwards stationed in one of the Leeward Isands until the

peace, when his regiment was reduced and he went on half pay where he remained until 1769. When the American Revolution broke out, warrants were granted to divers officers to embody old officers and other loyalifts in America into Provincial corps, In this way Brig. General McLean raised the ist battalion of the 84th or Royal Highland Emigrants in Canada, and Capt. Lawes received a commission in that regiment on the 1st June, 1777, on the opening of this campaign. He returned to Canada after this expedition, and is mentioned in the Memoirs of Pierre du Calvet, whom he arrested on suspicion of treasonable praftices in 1780. He died, it is suppofed, in the summer of 1782.



Instead of the working party ordered to be at the Rapids, a Detachment of the same number is to be at that place, tomorrow morning, for this Duty, and remain there till further Orders. The same numbers and proportions as the working party ordered to be with Mr. Vallancy this afternoon at four o'clock, will be at the same place tomorrow morning at day break, and when the Duty is finishied, the Officers will march their parties up to the Army and join their respective Corps,


Camp at Duer's House,

17th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Ferdinand. Countersign, Madrid.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.


It was endeavoured among other objects of the Expedition which marched to the Left, to provide such a supply of Cattle as might have enabled the Army to proceed without waiting the arrival of the Magazines. That attempt having failed of success through the chances of War, the Troops must necessarily halt some days for bringing forward the Transport; and the several Corps will employ that time to collect their sick and convalescents, and such other scattered parties as are merely on Regimental Duty.


The 47th Regiment is to march tomorrow morning to Fort Edward, where they will receive Orders from Major General Phillips. They are to take under their charge the Prisoners brought in by Colonel Brumert's Corps, and whatever other Prisoners of War there may be now here. The Flour taken from the Enemy to be delivered into the hands of the Commissary here. The Teams and Carriages taken are to convey the baggage of the 47th Regiment, and to be delivered by them into the hands of the Waggon Master General.


The Bridge over the great river having given way, by the increase and rapidity of the water, the materials are to be collected together in order to form a Bridge lower down.


Camp at Duer's House,

18th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Louis. Countersign, Paris.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lieut. Colonel Hill.


It having been a practice for Officers to order to be taken from the Provision train in the service of the King for this Army, the carts and horses for the carrying of baggage and other purposes, to avoid tor the future this danger and inconvenience to the service, it is in the most positive manner ordered, that no cart or horse is to be used, but for the public transport of the Army; nor is any Officer, accidentally coming to any particular post, to interfere with the provision train, in any other manner than to give it every aid and assistance in his power, which he is on all occasions to do.


Camp at Duer's House,

18th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Anthony. Countersign, Turkey.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forster.


Camp at Duer's House,

21st Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Matilda. Countersign, Coventry.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.


Four German Recruits in different British Regiments having been absent at two roll callings, yesterday, and it being supposed they are deserted. Parties of Indians and Provincials have been sent in search, and it is not doubted but they will be brought in or scalped.


The general zeal of this Army in the cause of the King and the British Constitution, is too appa- rent to admit a suspicion of the crime of Desertion, ever entering into the men's minds, except when they are intoxicated, or imposed upon by Emissaries of the Enemy.


There is reason to believe such Emissaries have dared to intrude in the Camp, and by spurious

promises, false representations, and perhaps by a readiness in the German language, have deluded these late criminals to an ignominious death. In order to bring such miscreants to condign Punishment, a reward of one hundred Dollars will be given for the discovery of any Person who shall be tampering with any Soldiers, or holding conversation in favour of the Enemy, or otherwise tending to persuade men to desert. This reward to be paid immediately upon the conviction of the offender; and the offender himfelf will be punished with death. And further to prevent such iniquitous attempts, the Regimental Gentries are not to suffer any Person who is not a Soldier or Officer's Servant at any time to be in the streets of the Camp; and the Provost and all Guards and Patrolls are to oblige all persons who shall at any time or place be found converfmg with Soldiers, to give an account of themselves, and they are to make prisoners all suspicious persons.


In regard to Deserters themselves, all out polls. Scouts and working Parties, of Provincials and Indians, are hereby promised a reward of twenty Dollars for every Deserter they bring in; and in case any Deserter should be killed in the pursuit, their scalps are to be brought off.


The Army will be victualled tomorrow morning at 10 o'clock to the 24th inclusive.


Camp at Duer's House,

22th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Agnes. Countersign, Sorell.

Field Officer Britsh Picquet, Lt. Colonel Hill.


There being still a want of uniformity in distributing the daily Orders to the men, notwithstanding repeated verbal explanations, upon this Subject, the Rule to be invariably observed for the future by every Regiment, is to form each Company in a Circle, at the evening roll calling upon the Parade, of each Regiment by word of Command from each Commanding Officer present; the Officers of Companies are to remain within their respective Circles till the whole of the Orders of the day have been read and explained by one of them.


The Commanding Officer of each Battalion is to be answerable that every man of the Battalion is present at the evening roll calling, except such men only who are absent upon Duty, or confined by sickness.


Camp at Duer's House,

23rd Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Joan. Countersign, Arc.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forster.


A General Court Martial to assemble tomorrow morning for the Trial of George Hundertmark, Soldier in the 9th Regiment, for Defertion, and such other prisoners as may be brought before them. President, Lieut. Col. Lind.


The three Regiments present, viz. 9th, 20th and 21st, give one Captain and three Subalerns each, Members.


All Prosecutors and Evidences to attend at the hour and place appointed by the President. Captain Gray,1 Judge Advocate.


Camp at Duer's House,

24th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Cecelia. Countersign, Kelly.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.


The General Court Martial of which Lieut. Colonel Lind was President, have found Patrick McDonald, private Soldier in the 47th Regiment, guilty of Desertion, and have sentenced him to receive one thousand Lashes. The same Court Martial have also found George Hundertmark, Soldier of the 9th Regiment, guilty of quitting his Post when Centinel without being regularly relieved, and of Defertion, and have sentenced him to be shot to death. Which Sentences are approved, and the Court Martial is dissolved. The day after tomorrow the Sentences will be put in Execution. The Picquets of the Line to attend. Lieut. Colonel Hill will give proper directions for a Party of men to execute the Sentence of death.



1 Warner Wald Gray entered the army as Enlign in the 83d regiment 3d January 1760, and was promoted to a lieutenancy 13th February, 1762. The regiment being disbanded after the peace, he

went on half pay and did not return to active service until 1768, when he was appointed to the 9th Foot. He obtained a company in that corps 26th September, 1772, and disappears from the Army List of 1781,



Camp at Duer's House,

26th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Mary. Countersign, Jerusalem.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lieut. Colonel Lind.


The Lieut. General having received the report from Lt. Col. Brcymann,1 relative to the affair at Saintwick. Mills, and also having obtained every collateral information possible, thinks it justice to declare publickly, that he has no reason to be dissatisfied with the personal Spirit of the officers and Troops in the Action; that on the contrary the Officers who commanded the different Corps acted with intrepidity.




1 Lt. Col. Heinrich Christoph Breyman. This officer commanded the German reserve, composed of the Brunwick chasseurs, light infantry and grenadiers, in this expedition, and was engaged in the battle ot Stillwater on the 19th September. Being ordered on the 7th of October, to accompany Gen. Burgoyne in reconnaisancc, the party was vigorously attacked and Breyman's corps suftered severcly, having left their commanding officer dead on the field of Freeman's farm.



The failure of the Enterprise seems in the first Instance to have been owing to the Credulity of those who managed the Department of intelligence, suffered great numbers of the Rebel Soldiers to pass and repass, and perhaps count the numbers of the Detachment, and upon ill-founded confidence induced Lieut. Col. Baume1 to advance too far to have a secure retreat. The next cause was the slow movement of Lieut. Col. Breymann's Corps, which from bad weather, bad Roads, tired horses and other impediments stated by Lieut. Colonel Breymann, could not reach 24 miles from eight in the morning of the 15th to four in the afternoon of the 16th. The Succour therefore arrived too late. The failure of Ammunition, in the management of which there appears to have been improvidence, was another missfortune. The rest seem common Accidents of War. Upon the whole. the Enemy have severely felt their little success, and there is no circumstance to affect the Army with further regret or melancholy, than that which arises from the loss of some gallant men. But let the Affair of the Mill2 at Saintwick remain henceforward as a lesson against the impositions of a treacherous Enemy, many of whom in the very hour of (wearing allegiance to the King, fought against his Troops, and against expending Ammunition too fast, by which conquering Troops were obliged to retire with loss. The Reflection upon this Affair will moreover excite Alertness and Exertion in every Corps marching for the fupport of another, by shewing in whatever degree those qualities may be possessed by the Commanding Officer (and they are not doubted in the present instance), yet unless they are general, common accidents may become fatal, and the loss of two hours may decide the turn of an enterprise, and it might happen in some cases, the fate of a Campaign.




1 Friedrich Baume was Lieut. Colonel of Riedefel's (dismountcd) Dragoons. He was feverely wounded at the battle of Bennington, 16th August, 1777, taken prifoner, and

died two days after.


2 This Mill, known as Van Schaick's Mill, ftands at the junction of the Wallomscoick and White

creeks, in the Town of North Hoosick, Rensselaer county, N. Y. Here  the memorable battle of Bennington ended.



Camp at Duer's House,

27th Aug. 1777.  

Parole, St. Magdalen. Countersign, Babylon.

Field Officer British Picquel, Major Forster.


Great irregularities having been committed by Conductors and others, followers of the Army, Camp Courts Martial will occasionally be assembled in the nature of Garrison Courts Martial, consisting of one Captain and four Subalterns from the Line, who will try such offenders according to the Clause in the Mutiny Ad:. All followers of the Army are subjest to Military Law.


Captain Money1, Deputy Quarter Master General, is appointed also to do the duty of Commissary of Horses and Inspector on the part of the King of the performance of the Contract made for furnishing and keeping up a certain number of Horses for the King's Service.



1 John Money was born in the year 1740, and entered the military profession as early as 1760, as Ensign in the Norfolk militia. He afterwards servcd as a volunteer in the 15th Light Dragoons, and as such was in 1761 at the battle of Felinghausen and other engagements. He was appointed Cornet in the 6th or Innilkilling Dragoons, 11th March, 1762, and ferved with that regiment until February, 1770, when he was commissioncd Captain in the 9th Foot. This regiment was ordered to Canada in 1776, in which year Capt. Money participated in the engagement with the Americans at Three Rivers. In the present expedition he acted as Deputy Quarter Master General, and had entire charge of that department; was in action of the 19th September, 1777, and was taken prifoner on the 8th October following. In November, 1780, he received the rank of Major by brevet and was promoted to be Major of his regiment 28th September, 1781. After the war Major Money went on half pay and became Lieutenant Colonel brevet 18th November, 1790. When the people of Belgium took up arms against Austria in 1789-90, he offered his serviccs to the patriots, from whom he received a commission of Major General. But the resistance not proving successful, he returned to England, where he became Colonel in the army in 1795; Major General in 1798; Lieutenant General 1805, and General 4th by June, 1814. He died at Trowse Hall, Norfolk, March 26th, 1817, in the 78th year of his age. Gen. Money was Colonel of the East Norfolk Yeomanry Cavalry at the time of his death.



It having appeared that many of the horses belonging to the King have been made use of for Private purposes, and secreted in the woods preparatory to the next march of the Army, all Commanding officers of Regiments will make strict inquiry into such enormities. It cannot be supposed that any Officers are privy to an offence that would subject them to be Cashiered with the utmost disgrace; but it is to be made publick to all Sutlers, Servants, Provincials, and all other Dependants upon and followers of the Army, that whoever hereafter shall be detected with one of the King's horses in his possession, unless authorized by the Department of the Quarter Masler General, will be tried by a Court Martial for Theft. And all Officers of that Department are forbid giving that authority, except by order of the Lieut. General, or evitable Exigencies of the Service. And any Agent, Commissary, Conductor or Driver who shall presume to sell or lend any horse. Cart or Harness, or connive at the use of such for any other purpose than the publick service, will be punished with the utmost rigour.

As long as a Brigadier shall be upon Duty at Ticonderoga, the Brigadier with the Army will command both Brigades.


There will be a sale of horses tomorrow at twelve o'clock at the round Tent near Head Quarters, where such Officers as chuse may furnish themselves.


Camp at Duer's House,

28th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. George. Countersign, Windsor.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.1


The Army will this day receive four days Provision to September 1st inclusive.


The different departments employed with the Army and allowed to be victualled, will receive their Provisions at the same time.



1 Gordon Forbes was born in the year 1738; entered the army as Ensign in the 33rd Foot in 1756;

became Lieutenant 2nd Oct., 1757, and was tranfferred to the 72nd regiment; obtained a company in 1762, when he ferved at the Havana, and exchanged into the 34th regiment 12th April, 1764. He served with the latter regiment in Louisiana, and in November, 1776, became Major of the 9th. He was twice wounded in this campaign. He must have been exchanged before the peace of 1783, for we find him commissioncd 24th September, 1781, Lieutenant Colonel of the I02nd (a newly raised) regiment, which proceeded soon after to the East Indies, where he

spent four years, and attained the rank of Colonel. On the rcduction of his regiment in 1785, Col. Forbes went on half pay. In 1794, he was promoted to be Major General, and the same year became Colonel of the 105th Foot, which however was shortly after reduced, and Col. Forbes was tranfferred to the 81st regiment on 24th January, 1797. He remained at the head of this corps but a few months and became Colonel of the 29th, on the 8th August of the same year. He was, commander of the forces in St. Domingo two years, became Lieut. General in 1801, and General in 1812. He died at Ham, in the county of Middlefex, January 17, 1828, in the 90th year of his age.



Camp at Duer's House,

29th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Joseph. Countersign, Portugal.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Hill.


The strict economy in the delivery and receipt of Provisions at all times are essential Duties, now becomes an object of the most important consequence. The fate of the Campaign may depend upon it, and the preservation of the live Cattle requires the most particular attention. They are only to be slaughtered for the sick, and in such cases as absolutely require it. The Commanding Officers of Regiments will therefore send in an account upon honour of the fresh Provisions requisite for their sick to the Commissary, the day before the General issue of Provisions to the Army, and be responfible that a proper reduction of Rations is made for the fresh Provisions received.


Whenever the Stock of Cattle shall be sufficient to admit of it, every attention will be had to the convenience and comfort of the Officers. And notice will be given when they can be supplied with Rations of fresh Provisions instead of salt.


The Lieut. General meaning that every Regiment should be upon the same regulation, directs that the Servants and Batmen be allowed as follows :


Field Officers. Servamts 1. Batmen 2

Captains. Servants 1. Batmen 1

Subalterns of a Company. Servants 2. Batmen 1.


When the men's Tents are carried upon Bat-horses, a Batman to be allowed each Company.


The Batman to be always armed, and to form the baggage Guard. The Servants to be considered as effectve in the Ranks, and are to attend at every evening parade; the other parades and roll callings are excused, unless the Regiments are ordered under Arms.


The Commanding Officers of Regiments will take care that this Order is complied with strictly.


Whenever Cattle is killed, it must be always at night. The Commissaries are made answerable for this.


Camp at Duer's House,

30th Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Charles. Countersign, Castile.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


It appearing beyond a doubt that great abuses prevail among the Soldiers and Inhabitants regarding the sale of horses, that horses have been often stole from Inhabitants, and that Officers not knowing this have been led by cheap prices to purchase such horses; in order to stop such iniquitous proceedings, and that Officers may not be imposed on, it is strictly ordered that no horses are to be bought privately by any Officer or other person, but that whoever has horses to sell bring them to the Board of Regulation for examination, and if proved the real property of the person so bringing them, notice is given that at 12 o'clock every day there will be sales at the Tent where the Board sits. Any Soldier or any Inhabitant detected of, and proved to have stolen horses, or having taken away horses on any pretence from any person, shall be punished for theft. It cannot be imagined after this Order, so positively given, that any Officer will buy horses at any other place than the publick sale.


All Cattle brought into the Camp to be ordered to the Board of Regulation, and by that Board to be sent to the Commissary General. The Troops must be sensible that buying Cattle privately, and by that means preventing a general supply, must prove very injurious to the Army.


The Quarter Master General's Department to receive Orders from Major General Phillips, and to report to him.


Lieut. Wilkinson1 is appointed to act as an Assistant Engineer under the Orders of Mr. Twiss the Commanding Engineer.


Mr. Robertson is appointed a Brigade Commissary of Provisions to the several Corps and Parties of Provincials until farther Orders.


Camp at Duer's House,

31st Aug. 1777.

Parole, St. Mark. Countersign, Venice.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forster.


A General Court Martial will be held tomorrow (composed of Officers belonging to that Corps) for the Trial of Walter Harris, Soldier in the Light Company of the 53d Regiment, for advising Wil- liam Bell, Soldier in the Light Company of the 24th Regiment, and Jofeph Brooks, Soldier in the Light Company of the 53rd Regiment to desert to the Rebels, and for declaring an intention to desert himfelf.


Camp at Duer's House,

1st Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. James. Countersign, Pembroke.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.


The Army will receive four days Provisions for the fifth Sept. inclusive.



1 William Wilkinson was commissioned Ensign in the 62nd. Foot, 31st December, 1772; Lieutenant 1stt May, 1775, vice Dalrymple, killed at Bunker Hill; he was appointed Adjutant of the regiment in 1782, and Captain-Lieutenant soon after. His name is dropped after 1786.  



Camp at Duer's House,

2nd Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Peters. Countersign, Rome.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Hill.


The Additional Companies are expected in Camp tomorrow.


Captain Frsfers Markmen are to be augmented with one Non Commission Officer and sixteen men from each British Regiment of the Line (the 53rd excepted); they are to take two from each Company, and chosen according to the Orders of last year, dated the 6th Sept., viz. men of good character, sober, active, robust and healthy; they are to be provided with a very good firelock, and to be in every respect proper to form a Body of Markmen, &c. &c. &c. Brigadier General Hamilton will see this Order complied with.


His Excellency General Carleton has been pleased to make the following Promotions in the Army.


Alexander Baillie1 Esq. Captain Lieutenant in the Ninth Regiment to be Captain of a Company in



1 Alexander Baillie held a Lieutenant's commission in the 60th or Royal American regiment as early  as July, 1758, and served through the French war. He went on half pay in 1763, and was not recalled into active service until 29th Nov., 1771, when he was appointed Lieutenant in the 21st Fuzileers. He obtained a company in the 9th Foot 23d Sept., 1776; became Major in the army 1 8th November, 1790, and of his regiment i 7th February, 1794; Lieutenant Colonel by brevet 1st March, 1794, and continued in active service until Auguft, 1795, when his name disappcars from the Army List.



the said Regiment in the room of Captain Stapylton1, dead of his wounds.


Lieut. Neil McLean2 of the 21st Regiment to be Captain Lieut. in the Ninth Regiment in the room of Captain Baillie promoted.


Ensign Minchin Hubert of the 24th Regiment to be Lieut, in the 21ft Regiment in the room of McLean promoted.


Mr. Hanbury, Volunteer, to be Ensign in the 24th Regiment in room of Hubert, promoted.


Camp at Duer's House,

3rd Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Gertrude. Countersign, Denmark.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


The Additional Companies to be divided among the eight Battalion Companies of each Regiment.


The men now wanting to compleat to be filled up, and the Supernumerary to be accounted with

by a particular Pay Bill, and a particular account kept, and regulated by the Commanding Officers of each Company.




1 Francis Samuel Stapleton was commissioned Ensign in the 9th Foot 4th September, 1762; served in Florida; became Lieutenant 12th  December, 1770, and Captain 31st May, 1773, and was killed in this Campaign.


2 Neil McLean entered the army 15th September, 1758, as Ensign in the 2nd battalion of the 42nd Highlanders; accompanied that regiment to the West Indies, and in 1759 served in the expedition against Martinique and Giiadaloupe. He was promoted to a lieutenancy 14th February, 1762, and went on half pay in 1763, where he so remained  until 1771, when he was appointed to the 21st Fuzileers. In June, 1775, he obtained a company in

that regiment and was transferred to the oth Foot 10th August 1777. His name disappears from the Army List in 1794.



The Officers of the Additional Companies are to be posted until further Orders to the weakest Companies, and where there is a Captain he is to have the Command of a Company whose Captain is absent and cannot be supposed to join this Campaign.


All the Regiments to send in their monthly Provision returns to the 24th August inclusive, with three General Receipts for each month, for the Provisions drawn by them, to assist Commissary General Clarke.


Camp at Duer's House,

4th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Paul. Countersign, Southwark.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forster.


Camp at Duer's House, 5th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Timothy. Countersign, Buckingham.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.


The Army will receive four days' Provisions for the ninth inclusive. The Quarter Masters will be with the Commissary at two o'clock. Such Regiments as have Supernumeraries are immediately to compleat their Grenadier and Light Infantry Companies. The additional men arrived yeslerday are to be exercised from seven to nine every morning, and from three to five every afternoon.


In their exercisings they will fire ball occasionally. The Army will march in a very short time. Each Regiment will therefore make such Inspection and preparation in regard to their Sick, their Baggage, and other Regimental Arrangements as will enable them to move alertly, and with their Ranks as strong as possible.


All the Provincial Corps must send in their monthly returns the first of the month, and their weekly states every Monday.


This to be invariably observed.


Camp at Duer's House,

6th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Alban. Countersign, Hertford/

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Hill.


The Surgeons of the Hospital having requested that ten men from the Provincials be ordered the Hospital to serve as Storekeepers and orderly men, who are to remain with and will be paid by the Hospital, according to their station and services.


The Lieut. General permits the Surgeon to employ ten men accordingly, and they will apply to the Provincial Corps for sober, diligent men.


The Surgeons of Regiments will send to the General Hospital a Return of the number of sick they will be obliged to have on the Army's moving. A Surgeon of the Hospital will receive the sick upon their returns in order to know their exact state, and at what time they will again be fit for service.


The Surgeons of Regiments are reminded of the Order of last year for proper returns being made when sick are sent to the General Hospital, of their cases, and the length of time they have been ill. And the Commanding Officers of Regiments will direct a Non Commission to attend the reception of their sick in the General Hospital, who is to deliver to the Clerk of the Hospital their Arms and Accoutrements and Necessaries, for which he is to receive a Receipt from the Clerk, who will preferve a list of them in his Hospital Book.


The Surgeons of Regiments to meet at Fort Miller at one o'clock tomorrow the Surgeons of the Hospital, to concert proper measures for the future conduct of the Sick; and for keeping in a correct manner the proper connexions between the Regimental and General Hospitals.


The Troop of the Army to beat at nine o'clock in the morning, taking the time from the Right Wing.


Lieut. P. England1 of the 47th Regiment is appointed to act as Fort Major at Ticonderoga, &c.



1 Poole England entered the service as Ensign in the 47th regiment 6th November, 1769; and was appointed Lieutenant 16th April, 1773. He was at the battle of Bunker Hill in 1775, on which occaaion he was wounded; and after the evacuation of Bofton, accompanied his regiment to Canada. He figned the Cambridge parole in 1777, and received his company 17th May, 1782. His name is omitted in the Army Lift of 1783.



Camp at Duer's House,

7th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Phillip.

Countersign, Spain.

Field Officer Britifh Picquet, Lieut. Col. Lind.


All the Prisoners except the Military, in the Provost or other Guards, to be brought before the Board of Commissioners tomorrow morning at ten o'clock; all witnesses to attend at that time.


Camp at Duer's House,

8th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. George. Countersign, Kent.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes/


A General Court Martial to assemble tomorrow morning for the trial of all prisoners that may be brought before them, at the round Tent, at nine o'clock. Major Forster President. One Captain and three Subalterns from each of the Regiments present. Members. Captain Craig, Judge Advocate. All prosecutors and evidences to attend.


The Army will receive four days Provisions tomorrow morning, to the 13th inclusive.


A working party of 50 men will be wanted tomorrow morning at 6 o'clock to repair the roads between this and Fort Edward, to take their Orders from the Quarter Master General.


Lieut. Roberton will attend upon this Duty.


Camp at Duer's House,

9th Sept. 1777.  

Parole, St. Vincent. Countersign, Brentford.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Hill.


Assistant Commissary General Clarke is ordered to pay the strictest attention to the preservation of the Salt in the Provision Barrels, and to give the necessary Directions to all the Commissaries and Persons concerned in issuing Provisions for this purpose, as this Article will become very necessary when there shall be a sufficiency of fresh Provisions for the Army.


The whole will march from here tomorrow morning. The General will beat at eight o'clock. The Assembly at nine. The Regiments will march by the Right. Brigadier Specht will furnish the rear Guard from the Germans. The Baggage to follow the Line.


One Sergeant and twelve men to be furnishied for a Guard to the Paymafter General.


One Sergeant and twelve men for the Hospital Guard, who are also to give every assistance in the removal of the Sick and Wounded, Hospital Stores, &c.


The General Court Martial, of which Major Forster was Prefident, is dissolved.


Camp at Duer's House,

10th Sept. 1777.

Parole St. Thomas. Countersign, Weymouth.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


All the Paymasters of the Army will receive the Subsistence of their Regiments and Corps from the 25th June to the 24th Auguft, 1777, and settle all Accounts with Mr. Geddes, Assistant Paymaster General, to the 24th August. The Paymaster General is also ready to account with the German Corps.


The Regiments here will march tomorrow morning in the same order as directed yesterday. The General will beat at 8 o'clock. The Assembly at nine.


Lieut. Skene is appointed to act with Capt. Fraser' s Corps of Rangers till further Orders.


Camp near Battenkill,

Sept. 11th, 1777.

Parole, St. Margaret. Countersign, Navarre.

Field Officer Britifh Picquet, Major Forster.


The Army will be ready to move forward tomorrow morning. A working Party of 100 men from the Line for Captain Shank at 5 o'clock, to load Provisions. Work to nine.


Camp near Battenkill,

12th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Michael. Countersign, Cornwall.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.


The Officer who was so unmindful of his Duty some days ago as to quit his Post of the utmost importance, to attend upon private business, having expressed a thorough sense of his misconduct, and as far as in him lies atoned for the dame by evident marks of concern, is releaded from arredt. But the favy having become notorious to the whole Army, the Lieut. General, in vindication of his own charavter, finds himdelf obliged to declare, that in suffering so uncommon a breach of Discipline without the Judgment of a Court Martial, he can only justify himself by the Confidence that the Officers of this Army in general do not want an example of Punishment to impress upon their minds a knowledge of the great principles of their Profession, a consciousness of their respective stations, and a regard to personal honour, and he forgives and will forget the fault in queslion, convinced that it is impossible it should happen twice.


A great line of economy and also an attentive adherence to the minuter parts of it, in the preservation and distribution of the Provisions becoming of the utmost importance to the Campaign, the Lieut. General requires the strictest attention and precision, that no species of imposition from the under branches of the Corps or Departments may be admitted in the following Returns.


A Return from Brigadier General Fraser of the number of Rations drawn for by the Advanced Corps, in which is to be included the Indians, Canadians and Provincial Corps, the Company of Pioneers under Capt. Wilcox, and all their Con-ductors, Drivers, and their usual other followers.


A Return to the fame purpofe from Major Gen- eral Phillips for the Right Wing of the Army and Artillery.


A Return to the same purpose from Major General Reidesel for the whole Left Wing of the Army in which is to be included Col. Breyman's Corps.


A Return from Capt. Money to the same purpose from his Departments as Deputy Quarter Master General and Commissary of Horse.


All these Returns are to be sent to the Lieut. General sealed, and no Copies communicated. In order that the several Officers who are to be responsible for their correctness may have time to prepare them, these Returns are not required till the 17th Inst. But in the meantime all Commissaries are forbid under the severest penalties to deliver any species of Provisions to any Persons, without having due Authority from the heads of Corps and Departments.


The Army will be ready to move tomorrow. The Park of Artillery will follow immediately after the Advanced Corps, and the Reserve, and the British Regiments of the Line follow the Artillery. The 47th Regiment will encamp on the ground left by the German Reserve, to cover the Provisions and assist in loading them.


The Left Wing will receive their orders from Major General Reidesel.


Camp at Saratoga,

13th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Nicholas. Countersign, Yarmouth.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Anstruther1.


The Army may be required to take Arms at the shortest notice : Officers therefore are not to quit the Camp. No Soldier nor follower of the Army is to pass the Fishkill under pain of the severest punishment.


The present post of the six Companies of the 47th Regiment being destined to cover the Depot of Provisions, those Companies are not to take any of the Duties of the Line, but will augment their own Picquet to 40 men, which will during the night occupy a post upon the Island and upon the point of land on the fouth side of Fishkill where it falls into the River. The 20th Regiment will advance four Companies to cover Head Quarters; they will bring their Tents and take their orders from Sir Francis Clarke.



I John Anstruther is found commissioned in 1761 Captain Lieutenant in the 63rd Foot, which regiment served in 1759 in the expedition againft Guadaloup; Captain in 1762 and Major in 1766; he became Lieutenant-Colonel of the 62d in February, 1773, and was wounded in two different actions during this campaign; was promoted to be Colonel in the Army in 1780, and is dropped towards the close of 1782.



The Picquet and Quarter Guards of the Line are to be posted upon the Right Flank of the Encampment, so as to form a front in the same line of direction with the British Light Infantry. If it should be necessary to form a Line of Battle to that front, the Regiments of the Line will march to it by two Columns, the 9th Regiment followed by the 21st, making the Right, and the 62nd followed by the 20th making the Column of the Left, in order to fill up the space between the Corps of General Fraser and Colonel Breymann. Brigadier Hamilton will order the proper Communications for this movement, and mark it in such manner to the Commanding Officers, that it may be made in the night time with alertness and free from Confusion.


When Major General Phillips shall have directed the Roads proper to be taken for the part the Artillery is to bear in this movement, they are also to be well reconnoitered by the respective Officers, that their march may not clash with the Columns. If this movement is made, the 47th Regiment keeps its ground, and is to defend it to the last againsl: any attack from the other side of the water, and the four Companies that cover Head Quarters, are to take post in the Redoubt above the Bridge that leads to Head Quarters.



In case of any movement on this side the Hudson's River, Major General Reidesel will form the Left Wing of the Army at the Head of this Encampment, but not march off the Ground.


1 Friedhich Adolph Riedesel was born on the 3rd June, 1738, at Lauterbach in Rhinehesse. About the age of 15 he was sent to College at Marburg, where he shortly after entered the military service as Ensign in an Infantry regiment then in garrison in that place. This regiment having been received into the English establishment, Ensign Riedefel accompanied it to England, where he remained for a couple of years and acquired, during his sojourn, a tolerable knowledge of the English language. On the breaking out of the Seven Years' War in 1756, his regiment was recalled to Germany, where he was attached to the person of Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick. He was appointed in the year 1760, Captain of a regiment of Hessian Hussars, then lately formed, and which is defcribed as one of the best and most splendid in the service. After serving two years in that corps, he found himfelf passed by when promotions were made, which led him to resign his commission, but in reparation for the loss Prince Ferdinand appointed him Lieutenant Colonel of his Black Hussars in 1762. He was engaged in active service throughout the whole of the war, and when peace was declared retired into winter quarters, and in the month of December, 1762, was married to Frederica Von Massow, second daughter of Commiffary General Von Massow, whose acquaintance he had formed in the course of his military career. On the disbanding of his regiment in 1767, Riedesel was appointed Adjutant-General of the Brunswick Army, and in 1772, named Colonel of Carabineers, formed shortly after into a regiment of Dragoons. A few years after thi.s the American Revolution broke out, and to crush the rifing spirit of Independence, England entered early in 1776, into treaties with the petty sovereigns of Germany to take into Britifh service nearly 20,000 German troops. Over 4,000 of these were Brunfwickers. Colonel Riedesel was advanced to the rank of Major General and appointed to the command of the latter corps, which consisted of the following troops : 1. A regiment of (dismounted) Dragoons; under Lieut. Col. Baum. 2. Prince Frederick's regiment of Infantry; Lieut. Col. Pratorius. 3. Rhets's regiment of Infantry; Lieut. Col. von Ehrenkrook. 4. Riedesel's regiment of Infantry; Lieut. Col. von Specht. 5. Von Specht's regiment of Infantry; Col. von Specht. 6. Grenadiers; Lieut. Colonel Breyman. 7. Rifle Battalion (Jagers); Lieut. Colonel Earner. General Riedefel failed from the Elbe on the 21st


The Quarter Mafters and Camp Colourmen of the Left Wing will mark out their ground tomorrow morning, but that Wing is not to pass the River till the last of the Depot shall have passed the Bridge, for expediting of which purpose, all the Departments concerned are to use their utmost diligence.



March, 1776; arrived at Spithead on the 28th of the same month and failed on the 4th April for Quebec, where he arrived on the 1st of June. After spending a year in Canada, he proceeded on the present expedition. It is not necessary to detail here the operations in which he was engaged. After the surrender of the Army he accompanied General Burgoyne to Albany, where he was entertained with most honorable hospitality at the mansion of Gen. Schuyler. He left that city on the 22nd October, 1777, and proceeded to Cambridge, where he and the other German prisoners arrived on the 7th November following. In Nov. 1778, the German troops were ordered to Virginia, whither Maj. Gen. Riedesel followed, and in the course of the year 1779 were sent into Pennsylvania. In November of that year he was permitted to remove to New York. Having been exchanged in the autumn of 1780, Gen. Clinton conferred on him a command on Long Island, and Maj. Gen. Riedesel in consequence took up his quarters in Brooklyn. He remained there until 1st July, 1781, when he, his family and suite embarked on board the transport Little Deal for Canada. After touching at Halifax he arrived a second time at Quebec on the l0th September, 1781, and proceeded to occupy his old quarters at Sorel, having been put in charge of the district south of the St. Lawrence between Sorel and Lake Champlain. In 1783, an order was received to send back the German troops to Europe, and Maj. Gen. Riedesel failed from Quebec in August of that year, and after a brief passage arrived in England, whence he proceeded to Brunswick. Of the 4000 Brunswickers that left in 1776, about 2800 returned to Germany. On the 5th of March, 1787, Maj. Gen. Riedesel was advanced to the rank of Lieut. General, and in the following year was appointed to the command of the Brunswick contingent, which formed part of the German army that was sent to Holland to support the cause of the Stadholder. He served with brief intervals in that country until the close of 1793, when he retired to Lauterbach. He returned in 1794 to Brunswick, of which city he was appointed Commandant, and died on the 6th January, 1800, in the 62nd year of his age. Of nine children, one daughter only was living in 1856. Mdme. Riedesel, who has made herself familiar to all American readers by her interesting and entertaining Letters, survived her husband eight years and died in Berlin on the 29th March, 1808.



Four days Provisions to be issued to the Army tomorrow morning for the 17th Instant inclusive.


Camp at Saratoga,

Sept. 14th, 1777.

Parole, St. Jerome. Countersign, Bath.

Field Officer British Picquit, Lt. Col. Hill.


Enormous mismanagement has been committed in respect to the King's Carts, which have been allowed for the carriage of Camp Equipage only. Upon the next march, Commanding Officers of Corps are to be responfible that the Regimental Qr. Master or in his absence some other Officer deputed to act for him, inpect the loading of the Carts, and suffer no Article beyond the extent of the order to be put thereon.


A Field Officer of each wing is to review the Carts as they pass off, and in case he finds any overloaded, he is to direct the improper Articles to be thrown off, and left upon the ground, and afterwards report the Regiment to which they belong. Any Soldier or other person detected in ill-treating any drivers, or horses, may be expected to be severely punished.


During the next marches of the Army, the Corps are to move in such a state as to be fit for instant Action; it therefore becomes an unavoidable necessity to circumscribe more than at present, regimental convenience, in regard to the attendants upon baggage, cattle, and other inferior purposes.


The Brigadier Generals will collect this evening from the Commanding Officers of Corps under their command, a Report of the number of Rank and File each Corps can march in the Ranks tomorrow, and an Account how the absent men are disposed of.


It is to be a standing order for the rest of the Campaign, that all Picquits and Guards are under Arms an hour before daylight every morning, and remain so till it is compleatly light. All Outposts and Picquits are to send out Patroles at this time. The Army will be in readiness to march tomorrow.


Major Hughes1 has requested that Mr. Charles Gordon may be named in the Orders as an Acting Assistant for the Contract of Horses.


Camp at Saratoga,

15th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Louisa. Countersign, Brancton.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Harnage.


The Tents to be ftruck at twelve, and the Bag- gage loaded immediately.



1 William Hughes was appointed Lieutenant in the 53d Foot on the organization of that regiment in 1756, and obtained his company ten years at Gibraltar the regiment was ordered to Ireland where it remained until 1776, when it was sent to Canada. Capt. Hughes succeeded the Earl of Balcarras as Major of the regiment, 8th October, 1777, and signed the parole at 20th October, 1765. After serving Cambridge in December following. He is supposed to have died in October, 1780.



The Army to march in three Columns after having passed Schuyler's house.


The Right Column, consisting of the British on the Right of the road.


The Left Column, consisting of the Left Wing along the Meadow to the Left of the Road.


The Artillery to form the Center Column, followed by the Baggage. The two Brigades of Ar- tillery of the Line to lead.


Breymanns Corps to form the Rear Guard of the Army, and are to wait upon their Ground till they receive an order from an Aid de Camp of the Commander in Chief, or from Major General Reidesel.


The Provisions are to be floated down under the care of Capt. Brown. The 47th Regiment will move with the Rear of the Provisions.


The Hospital to move as quick as Carts can be provided for them.


The Bridge to be broke up and floated down immediately after the Army is marched, under the order of Capt. Shanck.1



1 John Schanck was a son of Alexander Schanck, Esq. of Castlereg, in Scotland, and was born about the year 1746. He went to sea in early life, and was for fome time in the merchant service. In 1757 he served for the first time in a man-of-war, the Elizabeth, of 74 guns, commanded by Sir Hugh Palliser, whom he afterwards accompanied to another ship in the capacity of Master's Mate. We next find him in the Emerald frigate. Captain Douglas, with whom he went to the north cape of Lapland, to observe the transit of Venus. About 1771 Mr. Schanck joined the Princess Amelia of 80 guns, fitted for the Jamaica station, under Sir George Rodney. Previous to this, he a pears to have the good fortune to save the life of Mr. Whitworth, who was overset in a small boat in Portsmouth Harbour, and afterwards lost in America while serving under Lord Howe. Mr. Schanck was also for some time a midshipman on board the Barfleur, and was ordered to America, where he became known to Earl Percy. In 1774 he invented a new construction of vessels, with Aiding keels, adapted for navigating in shallow water, and applied his invention to a boat built for Lord Percy, then at Boston. The experiment was attended with so much satisfaction, that it was introduced into the British navy, and led to other improvements of asimilar kind. In the month of June, 1776, after a laborious service ot eighteen years' continuance, Mr. Schanck was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant, and appointed to the Canceaux, an armed schooner, employed on the river St. Lawrence. This command he nominally retained for a considerable time; we say nominally, for almost immediately after the commencement of the war in Canada, the late Admiral Vandeput, with whom he had served as a midshipman in India, and who had conceived a just idea of his talents, recommended him as a proper person to fit out a flotilla, to act against the revolted colonists on the Lakes; in consequence of which he was appointed superintendence of the naval department of St. John's, and in the year following received a second commission, nominating him to the elevated station of senior officer of the naval department in that quarter. In fact, he might have been truly called the civil commander-in-chief, all the conjunct duties of the Admiralty and Navy Board being veiled in him. The force under his direction was considerable, no less than four different flotillas, or squadrons of small vessels, being at one time subject to his direction in the civil line. His exertions and merit were so conspicuous, as to draw forth the highest encomiums from the admiral commanding on the station, particularly on account of the celerity and expedition with which he constructed a ship of over 300 tons, called the Inflexible, the very presence of which vessel on the Lakes struck with insurmountable terror the whole American fleet, and compelled it to seek for safety in ignominious flight, after having held out a vain boart of many months' continuance, that the first appearance of the British flotilla would be the certain forerunner of its immediate destruction. The Inflexible was originally put on the stocks at Quebec; her floors were all laid, and some timbers in; the whole, namely, the floors, keel, stem and stern, were then taken down, and carried up the St. Lawrence to Chamblais, and thence to St. John's. Her keel was laid, for the second time, on the morning of the 2nd September; and by sunset, not only the above-mentioned parts were laid and fixed, but a confiderable quantity of fresh timber was, in the course of the same day, cut out and formed into futtocks, top-timbers, beams, planks, &c. On the 30th September, being twenty-eight days from the period when the keel was laid, the Inflexible was launched; and on the evening of the 1st October, she actually sailed, completely manned, victualled, and equipped for service. In ten days afterwards this vessel was engaged with the enemy; so that it may be said, without the smallest exaggeration of Lieutenant Schanck's merits, that he built, rigged, and completed a ship, which fought and beat her enemy, in less than six weeks from the commencement of her construftion. Among other curious particulars relative to this extraordinary circumstance, it was no uncommon thing for a number of trees, which were actually growing at dawn of day, to form different parts of the ship, either as planks, beams, or other timbers, before night. Few professional men, and methodical shipwrights, would, perhaps, credit this fact, were it not established beyond all possibility of controversy. Exclusively of the armaments which he had fitted out and equipped for service on the Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and Michigan, Lieut. Schanck had the direction of four different dockyards at the same time, situated at St. John's, Quebec, Carleton Island, and Detroit. In all these multifarious branches and divisions of public duty, his diligence and zeal were equalled only by the strict attention which he paid on all occasions to the economical expenditure of the public money; a rare and highly honorable example, particularly at that time of day, when peculation and plunder were charges by no means uncommon, and when the opportunities which he possessed of enriching himself, without danger of  ncurring complaint, or risking discovery, were perhaps unprecedented. His services on this occasion were not solely confined to the naval department. When Gen. Burgoyne arrived from England, and placed himself at the head of a formidable army, by means of which, in cooperation with other assistance, it was expected that America would be suddenly and completely subdued. Lieut. Schanck's talents were again called into exertion. In a country so frequently interfered by creeks, rivulets, streams, and rapid rivers, the progress of troops was liable to an endless variety of obstruftions. It is usual in Europe to make use of pontoons on similar occasions; but these were not always to be obtained in America, and even when procured became cumbersome and inconvenient in a forest, as they were to be carried through swamps and woods, sometimes impervious to wagons. To obviate the inconvenience to which Gen. Burgoyne was subjected on this account, Lieut. Schanck became not only the inventor, but the construction of several floating bridges, by which the progress of the army was materially aided, and without which it would have been in all probability totally impeded much sooner than it really was. They were so constructed as to be capable of navigating themselves; and were not only equipped with malls and fails for that purpose, but having been built at the distance of seventy miles from Crown Point, were actually conveyed thither without difficulty, for the purpose of forming a bridge at that place. The unhappy result of Gen. Burgoyne's expedition for the subjugation of the Colonies is too well known; and it is almost unnecessary to remark, that the floating bridges, like the army destined to pass over them, were but too soon in the power of the enemy. Such services as these could not but be followed by correspondent rewards; and we accordingly find Lieut. Schanck promoted, first to the rank of commander, and then to that of post-captain; the latter event occurred August 15, 1783. After the commencement of hostilities with France, consequent to the French Revolution, Captain Schanck's abilities were considered far too valuable to be neglected; and he was accordingly appointed to be principal agent of transports in the expedition sent to the West Indies, under the orders of Admiral Sir John Jervis, and General Sir Charles Grey. This fatiguing and important service he executed, not only with the strictest diligence, but with an attention to the national finances, uncommon, and perhaps unprecedented. He remained some time at Martinico, after the capture of that valuable island. So conspicuous was his assiduity in the preceding service that when the reveries of war compelled the British troops to quit Flanders, and retire into Holland, whither they were followed by the armies of the French Convention, Capt. Schanck was appointed superintendent of all the vessels employed in the various services of conveying either troops, stores, or property, from one country to the other; and his exertions tended at least to reduce disaster within its narrowest possible limits. The acquisition of coast gained by the enemy, and the general complexion of public affairs, causing an apprehenfion that an attempt might be made to invade Britain, a new and formidable system of defence was, by the orders of the Admiralty Board projected, arranged, and completely carried into execution, under the direction of Capt. Schanck. In short, the defence of the whole coast, from Portsmouth to Berwick-upon-Tweed, was confided to him; and few commands have ever been bestowed of more magnitude and importance, or requiring more extensive abilities. The objects he had to attain were infinitely more multifarious than generally fall to the lot either of a land or of a naval officer; for he was not only under the necessity of contriving and constructing a variety of rafts, and vessels of different descriptions, capable of receiving cannon, but he was also compelled to fit and adapt for the same purpose, the greater part even of the fmall boats which he found employed in different occupations on the coast. When even these difficulties were overcome, he had still to undergo the task of teaching the inhabitants throughout the several districts, the art of fighting and managing this heterogeneous, though highly serviceable flotilla, in case the necessity of the country should be such as to require their personal exertions. To have overcome these multiplied difficulties would, in itself, be a matter of sufficient praise to entitle a man to the highest tribute public gratitude could bestow, were every other occasion that could call for it wanting. In 1799, Captain Schanck was again appointed to superintend the transport service connected with the expedition to Holland; and on the formation of the Transport Board, he was nominated one of the Commissioncrs; a station he continued to hold with the highest credit and honour to himself, till the year 1802, when, in consequence of an opthalmic complaint, he was under the necessity of retiring from the fatigues of public service. On the promotion of Flag-officers, which took place November 9, 1805, Commissioner Schanck was promoted to the rank of Rear-Admiral. He became a Vice- Admiral, July 31, 1810; and an Admiral of the Blue, July 19, 1821. Admiral Schanck was one of the original members of the Society for improving naval architecture, set on foot by the late eccentric John Sewell, the bookseller; and some of the papers published by that Institution were the productions of this ingenious ofHcer. He appears also to have been the inventor of gun-boats with moveable slides, for firing guns in any direftion. He likewise fitted the Wolverine sloop with the inclined plane in her gun-carriages, which is juftly considered as the greatest modern invention in gunnery. Admiral Schanck married Miss Grant, by whom he had a daughter, who married, in 1800, Capt. John Wright, R. N., and who died May 6, I 812, leaving a young family. On the 6th of March,  1823, Admiral Schanck died at Dalish, in Devonshire, in the 83rd year of his age.




At Dovogot Camp, after order.


One Captain, two Subalterns and one hundred men from the ninth Regiment to take post at the Bridge on the great road. The whole Line to he accoutred tonight.


Camp at Dovogot,

16th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. John. Countersign, Valentia.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lieut. Col. Lind.


No foragers are at any time to go out in small parties, nor ever till the Fog is cleared up. When forage is wanted, the Brigadier Generals will send a report to the General of the numbers proposed and of the time they are meant to be absent from the Camp, that a judgement may be

formed whether the numbers can be spared for that time. The foragers when out are to keep together, and upon the firing of three Guns are to return to Camp with all possible expedition.


The Carts that are sent to the Regiments for carrying their regimental baggage, are to be returned to the orders of the D. Qr. Mafter General as foon as they arrive in Camp, except at fuch times as the march of the Army is likely to be con- tinued in a few hours.


Camp at Sword's Farm,

17th Sept. 1777

Parole, St. Honora. Countersign, England.


Field Officer Britifli Piquet, Major Forster.


The whole Army to lie Accoutred and be under Arms an hour before day break and continue so till it clears up.


Camp at Sword's House,

Sept. 18, 1777.

Parole, St. Patrick. Countersign, Dublin,

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forbes.


To the great reproach of discipline, and of the common sence of Soldiers who have been made prisoners, the Service has sustained a loss within ten days that might in Action have cost the lives of some hundreds of the enemy.


The Lieut. General will no longer bear to lose his men for the pitiful consideration of potatoes or forage.


The life of the Soldier is the property of the King, and since neither friendly admonition, repeated injunctions nor corporal puniihments have effect, after what has happened, the Army is now to be informed, and it is not doubted the Commanding Officers will do it, solemnly, that the first Soldier caught beyond the advanced Centries of the Army will be instantly hanged.


If the Army does not march this afternoon, two days more provisions will be issued to victual them compleat to the 21st Instant inclusive.


It is possible that some flour may have received damage by water carriage; in that case care must be taken that the distribution is made equally, that no particular mess may suffer.


The baggage is to remain loaded, as the Army will march as soon as the Bridges are repaired.


In case of an Action, the Lieut. General will be found near the Center of the British Line, or he will leave word there where he may be followed.


In case of an Aftion, one orderly Subaltern Officer is to be sent from each of the following Corps, viz. one from the British Line, one from Brigadier General Fraser's Corps, and one who speaks French from the Left Wing. These Officers are to be on Horse back.


Beyond Freeman's House, on the Field of Battle,

19th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Eustatia. Countersign, Holland.


Camp Freeman's House,

20th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Andrew. Countersign, Orkney.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


The whole Army will march exactly at three o'clock. The British Regiments upon the Left will dress with the Right of the Grenadiers, and the Britslh Line will extend their Right, dressing with the Regiment on their Left. Mr. Vallancey will show them their ground.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

21st Sept. 1777.

Morning Orders.


As parties are to be employed making roads this day in order to advance towards the Enemy, it's

the General's Orders that the Corps encamp on their present Ground immediately.


21st Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Louisa. Countersign, Lincoln.

Field Officer Britifh Picquet, Major Forster.


The Lieut. General having an opportunity of observing the Conduct of the Troops in all parts of the Action of the 19th Instant, thinks it incumbent on him to give his publick testimony to the exemplary spirit of the Offocers in general, and in many instances of the private men. In both these distinctions the Artillery are to be noticed, and the Brigade under Capt. Jones1 in particular deserves a conspicuous place.


His particular thanks to Major General Phillips cannot be omitted upon an Occasion where, added to the service of the department under his special inspection, he finds hisfelf under great obligations for the assistance of a most able and zealous Second in General command.


The zeal and spirit of Major General Reidesel demands also the Lieut. General's particular acknowledgements, and the regular fire given by the Troops he brought up, and the good countenance of the Germans in general was fully noticed.




1 Thomas Jones was commissioned 2d Lieutenant of Artillery 2nd April, 1757; Captain-Lieutenant 23d October, 1761, and Captain 1st January, 1771.


We have lost many brave men, and among that number is to be lamented Captain Jones, of the Artillery. who was killed at his brigade of guns. The Artillery of the army distinguished themfelves greatly, but this brigade in particular, the officers and men stationed at those guns being all killed and wounded, except  Lieutenant Hadden, who had a very narrow escape, his cap being shot away as he was spiking up the cannon. — Anbury, i, 418.



Brigadier General Fraser took his position in the beginning of the day with great judgment, and sustained the Action with his usual presence of mind and vigour.


Brigadier General Hamilton acquitted himself very honourably at the head of his Brigade by his activity and good conduct during an Action of several hours.


Amidst these general subjects of Applause, the impetuosity and uncertain aim of the British Troops in giving their fire, and the mistake they are still under, in preferring it to the Baynotte, is to be much lamented. The Lieut. General is persuaded this error will be corrected in the next engagement, upon conviction of their own experience and reason, as well as upon that general principle of discipline never to fire but by the order of an officer.


One hundred and twenty men of tried bravery and fidelity from the Provincial Corps of Jessops, Peters, McAlpins, and McKay are to be incorporated for the service of this Campaign only in the six British Regiments, in the proportion of twenty to each Regiment. They will have a Certificate under the hand of the Lieut. General to entitle them to a Discharge on the 25th day of December next. They will also receive a gratuity upon their incorporation, and another at the expiration of their service, and this will be the only number required from them.


Those Corps whose establishment is to take place upon a certain number of men being raised, are allowed to reckon the men furnished upon this order as a part of that number.


It is not doubted that the Officers now at the head of the feveral corps concerned, will assist to carry into effect so very material a piece of service by every encouragement in their power, in order to the number being supplied by Volunteers; the names of whom, and the Corps they belong to, are to be sent to Capt. Campble, Deputy Muster Master General, early tomorrow morning.


Discharging the Arms in Camp, which would be at all times irregular, is particularly so when near the Enemy, as it occasions false Alarms. The Commanding Officers of Regiments are to be responsible that the slanding order against keeping Arms loaded in the Bell Tents be better enforced, and if any duties occasionally require loaded Arms that they may be properly examined by an officer of a Company every morning, that such as cannot be drawn may be collected in one place and fired together.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

22nd Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Edmund. Countersign, Gloster.

Field Officer British, Lieut. Col. Lind.




Camp at Freeman's Farm.

23rd Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Charlotte. Countersign, Ludlow.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forster.


No person whatever to pass the Bridge from this side the water, without a written Order, signed by the Lieut. General, except scouts or other parties marching with Arms, or Engineers or workmen employed under them. And all persons coming from the other side are to be taken to Lieut. Col. Sutherland, or Commanding Officer of the 47th Regiment, to be examined.


Patrick Shehan, private Soldier in the 62nd Regiment, tried for desertion before a General Court Martial, held Sept. 9th, 1777, has been found guilty by that Court, and is sentenced to receive a Corporal punishment of one thousand Lashes, which sentence is confirmed by the Lieut. General, and ordered to be put in execution.


The Army to receive two days provisions tomorrow morning for the 25th inclusive.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

24th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Rupert. Countersign, Hampton.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

25th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Dorothy. Countersign, Leeds.

Field Officer Britifh Picquet, Major Forster.


Mr. John McComb is appointed by the Lieut. General Paymsfter to the Provincial Corps.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

26th Sept. 1777.  

Parole St. Stephen. Countersign, Stilton.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


The Lieut. General, desirous to contribute every thing in his power to the comfort of the wounded, has directed half a pound of meat per day to be added to their present allowance of fresh meat. Each Regiment of the Army is to send one Camp Kettle to the General Hospital to be delivered to the Purveyor, who is to give a receipt for the same, that they may be redelivered.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

27th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Jojepha. Countersign, Upton.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forster.


By some mistake a Cask of wine has been brought from the Lakes among some wine belonging to an Officer; any perfon specifying the nature and quantity of the wine, and giving sufficient proof of its being really their property, shall be paid for it by applying to head quarters.


Each British Regiment to send a baker to Mr. A: Commissary General Clarke to assist in baking for the Army.


Lieut. Campbel of the 24th Regiment is appointed to act as an Assistant to the Quarter Master General, and is to be attached to the Advanced Corps.


Lieut. Torriano1 of the 20th Regiment is appointed to act as Brigade Commissary of Provisions to the Right Wing in the room of Lieut. Corrie killed.


As there will be a dispofition made for a general foraging party tomorrow, and the time and place

named early in the morning, the Commanding Officers of Corps will take care that no parties are

suffered to go out.


The Lieut. General has been pleased to post the Canadian Officers as follows : Lieut. Bauhien to act as Captain vice Monin killed; Ensign De Bonne from Bounhoiel's Company to act as Lieutenant vice Baubien. Voluntier Vignong to act as Ensign, vice De Bonne, till his Excellency Sir Guy Carletonls pleasure is known.




1 Charles Torriano received a commission in the 3rd Buffs as Ensign 26th December, 1770, and was appointed Lieutenant in the 20th Foot 14th November, 1775. We don't find his name in the Army List after 1784.



The Army will make a forage to the rear tomorrow morning, to be ready to set out with the batt horses at eight o'clock, but not to move till the firing of one gun from the Center of the Line,

at which time the whole will proceed towards the Rear, and will feed the horses for four hours, after which they are to return to Camp with as large truffes of forage as possible. This foraging party to be covered by a Captain, three Subalterns, and one hundred and fifty men from the Advanced Corps, and one Captain, two Subalterns, and one hundred men from the Left Wing. The Detachment of the Advanced Corps will post themselves on the Heights, on this side of the Ravine, leading to Fisher's house, otherwise Dovogots. The Detachment of the Left Wing to take post near the River; communicating with that of the Advanced Corps, and no forager under pain of being shot as a deferter to proceed beyond the Covering party. The Deputy Quarter Master  General and Commissaries of Horse, with the Waggon Master to attend in their department this foraging party.


The Assistant Qarter Master General Bailey, from the Line, and Campble from the Advanced Corps are to go with the two Detachments, to see that a proper communication is kept between them. The Field Officer of the Picquet for this night is to inspect the whole.


The foragers are to return at three o'clock, and the covering party half an hour after.


Should three Guns be fired from the Camp, the whole are to return immediately.


Capt. Money, Deputy Qr. Mafter General, will assign the parts where forage is to be taken.


Two days Provisions for the 29th inclusive will be ilTued tomorrow and fent in Carts to the differ- ent Brigades and Corps. Lieut. Vallmicey will take charge of this.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

28th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Charles. Countersign, Madrid.

Field Officer British Piquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


The Lieut. General has received intelligence of an attempt made by the Enemy upon Ticonderoga, in which they miscarried and have retired, but have made prisoners some part of the 53d Regiment posted upon the carrying place of Lake George.


Till circumstances are more authentically known, it would be unjust to accuse any of so great a fault as suffering a surprize, but the occafion cannot be overlooked of repeating to Officers in general the necessity of vigilance and unremitting alertness upon their posts, and warning them that no distance of the Enemy or situation of ground is security or excuse, if they are found off their guard.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

29th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Ann. Countersign, York.

Field Officer British Piquet, Major Forster.


Notwithstanding the positive orders to the contrary, some men still expose themselves beyond the Advanced Guards. Orders are given to all out Guards and Centries to make prisoners every man that shall presume to go beyond them, and a very severe example will be immediately made of any Soldier, Driver or other follower of the Camp that shall be found guilty of disobeying this order, either for forage or upon any other pretence.


After Orders.


The Line will forage tomorrow morning at eight o'clock if the fog is off.


The Govering Party is to be commanded by a Field Officer. One Captain, two Subalterns and eighty men from the British. A Captain, three Subalterns and one hundred and twenty men from the Germans.


The Left Wing gives the Field Officer. The particular orders for the foraging will be given to the Field Officer tomorrow morning.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

30th Sept. 1777.

Parole, St. Raphael. Countersign, Italy.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


All the Drivers are to be allembled this evening at their different departments at the time of Roll calling, and are to be informed that seven men of those who deserted have been scalped by the Enemy's Indians, and that the Indians belonging to our Camp are in pursuit of the rest. They are also to be informed that the first Deserter taken belonging to them will be hanged up immediately.


Mr. Alexander Crookshanks is appointed to ast as an Assistant Commissary.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

1st Oct. 1777

Parole, St. Elfrida. Countersign, Newark.

Field Officer tomorrow British Picquet, Major Forster.


One days Provisions for the second instant will be issued to the Army immediately.


Parole, St. Mary. Countersign, Clifton;

changed on account of a deserter.


In consequence of authentic letters received by the Lieut. General from Brig. Gen. Powell at Ticonderoga, and Capt. Aubrey1 of the 47th Regiment commanding at Diamond Island in Lake George.




1 Thomas Aubrey, 2d son of Sir Thomas Aubrey, Bart., of Glanmorganshire, entered the army in 1762, as Enfign in the 9th Foot then serving in Florida; was promoted to a lieutenancy in 1765, and in the following year exchanged into the 4th or King's Own, in which regiment he served until 1771, when he obtained a company in the 47th Foot, which was soon after ordered to America and was engaged at Bunker Hill in 1775. During this campaign he was stationcd with two companies of his regiment at Diamond liland in charge of the stores at the south end of Lake George. Here he was attacked on the 24th September by the Americans in two divisions. who, however, were repulsed with considerable loss and forced to retreat. After the surrender of Burgoyne, Capt. Aubrey returned to  Canada, and became Major in the Army in 1782, and continued in  active service until 1789, when he is found on the half pay list. He represented the borough of Wallingford in Parliament, and having rose to the rank of Colonel in the Army died on the 15th January, 1814, leaving issue one daughter. His eldest brotherm Sir John Aubrey,  Bart., was lord of the Admiralty in 1782; lord of the Treasury in 1783, and "father of the House of Commons " in 1826.



The Army is informed that the Enemy having found means to cross the mountain between Skenes borough, * * *

[Two leaves missing from the original manuscript.]


Camp at Freeman's Farm.

3rd Oct. 1777.


There is reason to be assured that other powerful Armies are actually in cooperation with these Troops; and alhough the present supply of provision is ample, it is highly desirable to prepare for any continuance in the field that the King's service may require, without the delay of bringing forward further stores for those purposes; the Ration of Bread or Flour is, for the present, fixed at one pound.


With the same confidence in the King's grace the Lieut. General has ventured to order the Deputy Paymaster General to issue one hundred and sixty five days forage money to the Officers of this Army.


The Provost to make the round of the Camp this afternoon, and to report who are the persons that traffick in the sale of fresh meat, and from whence such traffick is supplied.


Each Regiment will send the spare Arms belonging to their men in Hospital to the Deputy Quarter Master General. They will be delivered in good order, and he will have them placed in the store till such time as the Regiment shall again apply for them.


Mr. McDonald is appointed to act as Surgeon to the Corps of McAlpin and McKoy.


The Army including the Advanced Corps will forage tomorrow morning.


The Covering Party is to be Commanded by a Field Officer. One Captain, two Subalterns and eighty men from the Right Wing. One Captain, three Subalterns and one hundred and twenty men from the Left Wing. The Germans give the Field Officer,


A Reserve of 300 Men with proper Officers to be in readiness tomorrow morning an hour after Revillie beating to turn out at the shortest notice under the command of Brigadier Specht, who will take his orders from Major General Riedesel.


The foragers and the Detachment under the Field Officer to assemble at eight o'clock on the plain by the Bridge. The Deput Quarter Master General with his Assistants, and the Commissaries of Horse to attend this foraging.


Parole and Counterfign both changed to

Parole, St. Clara. Countersign, Rome.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

4th Oct. 1777.

Parole, St. Cloud. Countersign, Champlain

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

5th Oct. 1777.

Parole St. Omer. Countersign, Crownpoint.

Field Officer British Picquet, Major Forster.


All out Guards and posts not intended to be concealed, are to light fires one hundred yards in their front, that they may the better distinguish anything advancing within that distance of their Stations.


Complaints having been made of several Bullocks and Cowes being stolen, no Cattle are to be sllaughtered without leave in writing from the Quarter Master General or his Assistants, which leave will be granted to such persons only as prove the Cattle to be their own property.


The Parole and Counterfign are both changed to

Parole, St. Rupert. Countersign, Holland.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

6th Oct. 1777.

Parole, St. John. Countersign, Saratoga.

Field Officer British Picquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


While the Army lies contiguous, the German Recruits in the British Regiments who are desirous of attending the Lutheran Service, will have leave upon applying to the Commanding Officer of their respective Regiments; who will order an Officer to march them to the place where the Service is performed, and return with them when it is over.


In the next delivery of Provisions, two days fresh meat will be issued at the rate of one pound of beef per Ration, to each man. The other two days will be salt provision as usual.


His Excellency the Lieut. General is pleased to make a present of twelve barrels of Rum to the Troops to be distributed as follows :


German Corps, 3 ballels

Officers do, 1 barrel

Advanced Corps, 3 barrels

Officers do, 1 barrel

British Regiments & Artillery 2 barrels

Officers do, 1 barrel

Jessups, Peters, Batteau men & naval department, 1 barrel


Total, 12 barrels


This Rum to be sent this afternoon to the different Corps. And the Brigadier General will take care that the Quarter Masters of the different Regiments issue it in equal proportions to the men. The Brigade Commiffaries will receive and give receipts for the same.


Camp at Freeman's Farm,

7th Oct., 1777

Parole, St. Charles. Countersign, Dover.


Near the Redoubts,

8th Oct. 1777.

Parole, St. Mark. Countersign, Milford.

Field Officer British Piquet, Major Forster.


At Dovogot,

9th Odlober, 1777.

Parole, St. Julia. Countersign, Stratford.


Six days Provision to be issued to the Army immediately. Breymann's Corps having by some mistake not drawn two days provisions on the last delivery, will now receive eight days provisions. To prevent delay the Quarter Masters of Regiments will unload as many Carts as they think necessary to fetch up this provision. An Officer and 30 men from the British, and a like party from the Germans, to go immediately to the Commissary's to assist in the delivery.


After Orders.


Each Regiment will send four Carts instantly to the Batteaux for their provisions.


Camp at Saratoga,

10th Oct. 1777.

Parole, St. Matthew. Countersign, Durham.


The Provision Carts to be drawn up directly to their respective Regiments, the provisions to be immediately issued to the men. The Officers will take care that all the messes cook as soon as possible.


As it is possible fome of the provisions were lost in the march yesterday, a return to be sent in immediately from each Regiment of what provisions will be wanting to compleat their men with six days from tomorrow the 11th to the 16th inclufive.


Field Officer Lt. Col. Lind for the British Picquet, 10th of Oct.


Ten men from each Regiment to be sent immediately to the 67th Regiment, and take their Orders from Col. Anstruther.


Camp Saratoga, 11th October, 1777.

Parole, St. Maurice. Countersign, Barton.

Field Officer British Piquet, Major Forster.

Parole and Countersign changed to

Parole, St. Albinia. Countersign, Nocton.


The Army to receive one day's fresh meat tomorrow morning, which will be for the 17th inclusive.


Camp Saratoga Heights,

12th Oct., 1777.

Parole, St. Michael. Countersign, Enfield.

Field Officer British Piquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


Camp Saratoga Heights,

13th Oct. 1777.

Parole, St. Elizabeth. Countersign, Springfield.

Field Officer British Piquet, Major Forster.


Camp Saratoga Heights,

14th Oct. 1777.

Parole, St. Justian. Countersign, Brookfield.

Field Officer British Piquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


Camp Saratoga Heights,

15th Oct. 1777.

Parole, St. James. Countersign, Wilton.

Field Officer British Piquet, Major Forster.


Camp Saratoga Heights,

16th Oct. 1777.

Parole, St. Joseph. Countersign, Cambridge.

Field Officer British Piquet, Lt. Col. Lind.


17th October.

Treaty of Convention signed.




No. I.

October 13th, 1777


Lt. General Burgoyne is desirous of sending a Field Officer with a Message to M. Gen. Gates upon a matter of high moment to both Armies. He requests to be informed at what hour Gen. Gates will receive him tomorrow morning.


M: General Gates.

Major General Gates will receive a Field Officer from Lt. General Burgoyne at the advanced posf of the Army of the United States, at ten o'clock tomorrow morning, from whence he will be conducted to Head Quarters.


Lt. Gen. Burgoyne.


No. 2.


Major Kingston delivered the following Message to M. General Gates, October 14th, from Lt. Gen. Burgoyne.


After having fought you twice, Lieut. Genl. Burgoyne has waited some days in his present position, determined to try a third conflict against; any force you could bring to attack him.


He is apprized of the superiority of your numsbers, and the disposition of your troops to impede his supplies, and render his retreat a scene of Carnage on both sides. In this situation he is impelled by humanity, and thinks himself justified by establislied principles and precedents of state and war to spare the lives of brave men upon honourable terms. Should Major Genl. Gates be inclined to treat upon that idea. General Burgoyne would propose a cessation of arms during the time necessary to communicate the preliminary terms by which in any extremity he and his Army mean to abide.


No. 3.


In answer to the Message by Major Kingston, Major General Gates delivered the following Terms :


1. General Burgoyne's Army being exceedingly reduced by repeated defeats, by Desertion, Sickness, &c., their Provisions exhausted, their Military Stores, Tents and Baggage taken or destroyed, their retreat cut off and their Camp invested, they can only be allowed to surrender prisoners of war.


Answer. Lieut. General Burgoyne's Army, however reduced, will never admit that their retreat is cut off while they have Arms in their hands.


2. The Officers and Soldiers may keep the Baggage belonging to them; the Generals of the United States never permit Individuals to be pillaged.


3. The Troops under his Excellency Gen. Burgoyne will be conducted by the most convenient Route to New England, marching by easy marches, and sufficiently provided for by the Way.


This Article is answered by Gen. Burgoyne's first proposal, which is here annexed.


4. The Officers will be admitted on Parole, may wear their side Arms, and will be treated with the Liberality customary in Europe, so long as they by proper behaviour continue to deserve it; but those who are apprehended having broken their Parole (as some Britifh Officers have done) must expect to be close confined.


There being no Officer in this Army under, or capable of being under the description of breaching his Parole, this Article needs no answer.


5. All Publick Stores, Artillery, Arms, Ammunition, Carriages, Horses, &c. &c. musl be delivered to Commissaries appointed to receive them.


All Publick Stores may be delivered. Arms excepted.


6. These Terms being agreed to and signed, the Troops under his Excellency General Burgoyne's Command, may be drawn up in their Encampments, where they will be ordered to Ground their Arms, and may thereupon be marched to the River side to be passed over in their way towards Bennington.


This Article inadmissible in any Extremity; sooner than this Army will consent to ground their Arms in their Encampment, they will rush on the Enemy, determined to take no Quarters.


7. A Cessation of Arms to continue till sunset to receive General Burgoyne's Answer.




Horatio Gates. Camp at Saratoga, Odt. 14th, 1777.


No. 4.


Major Kingston met the Adjutant General of Major General Gates's Army Oftober 14th, at Sun Set, with General Burgoyne's Answer, and delivered the following Message.


If General Gates does not mean to recede from the 6th Article, the Treaty ends at once.


The Army will to a man proceed to any Act of Desperation rather than submit to that Article.


Then delivered the Preliminary Articles from Lieutenant General Burgoyne and the Army under his Command.


The Cessation of Arms ends this Evening.


No. 5.


Answers being given to Major General Gates's Proposals, it remains for Lt. General Burgoyne and the Army under his Command to state the following preliminary Articles on their part.


1. The Troops to march out of their Camp with the Honours of War, and the Artillery of the Intrenchments which will be left as hereafter may be regulated.

Answer. The Troops to march out of their Camp with the Honours of War, and the Artillery of the Intrenchments, to the Verge of the River where the old Fort stood, where the Arms and the Artillery must be left.


2. A free passage to be granted to this Army to Great Britain, upon condition of not serving in North America during the present Contest; and a proper port to be assigned for the entry of Transports to receive the Troops whenever Gen. Howe shall so order.


Agreed to for the Port of Boston.


3. Should any Cartel take place, by which this Army or any part of it may be exchanged, the foregoing Article to be void so far as such Exchange shall be made.




4. All Officers to retain their Carriages, Bat Horses and other Cattle, and no Baggage to be molested or searched, the Lt. General giving his Honour that there are no Publick Stores secreted therein. Maj. General Gates will of course take the necessary measures for the security of this Article.




5. Upon the march, the Officers are not to be separated from their men, and in Quarters the Officers shall be lodged according to Rank, and are not to be hindered from assembling their men for Roll-calling, and other necessary purposes of Regularity.


Agreed to as far as circumstances will admit.


6. There are various Corps in this Army, composed of Sailors, Batteaux-men, Artificers, Drivers, Independent Companies, and Followers of the Army, and it is expected that these Persons, of whatever Country, shall be included in the fullest sense and utmost Extent of the above Articles, and comprehended in every respect as British Subjects.


Agreed to in the fullest extent.


7. All Canadians and Persons belonging to the Establishiment in Canada to be permitted to return there.




8. Passports to be immediately granted to three Officers not exceeding the Rank of Captain, who shall be appointed by Gen. Burgoyne to carry despatches to Sir William Howe, Sir Guy Carleton, and to Great Britain by the way of New York, and the publick faith to be engaged that these despatches are not to be opened.




9. The foregoing Articles are to be considered only as preliminaries for framing a Treaty, in the Course of which others may arise to be considered by both parties, for which purpose it is proposed that two Officers of each Army shall meet, and report their deliberations to their respective Generals.


This Capitulation is to be finished by two o'clock this Day, and the Troops march from their Encampments at five, and be in readiness to move towards Boston tomorrow morning.


10. Lieut. General Burgoyne will fend his Deputy Adjutant General to receive Major General Gates's Anfwer tomorrow morn- ing at ten o'clock.


Complyed with.




Horatio Gates. Saratoga, 15 th Oct. 1777/


No. 6.


The eight first Preliminary Articles of Lieutenant General Burgoyne's Proposals, and the second, third and fourth of those of Major General Gates of yesterday being agreed to, the foundation of the proposed Treaty is out of Dispute, but the several Subordinate Articles and Regulations necessarily springing from those Preliminaries, and requiring Explanation and precision between the parties before a Definitive Treaty can be safely executed, a longer Time than that mentioned by General Gates in his answer to the 9th Article becomes indispenfably necessary. Lieutenant General Burgoyne is willing to appoint two Officers immediately to meet two others from Major General Gates, to propound, discuss and settle those Subordinate Articles, in order that the Treaty in due form may be executed as soon as poffible.




John Burgoyne.

Camp at Saratoga, 15th Oct. 1777.


Major Kingston1 has Authority to settle the place for the meeting of the Officers proposed.



1 Robert Kingston entered the Army 3d September, 1756, as Ensign in the 11th Foot and was promoted to a lieutenancy in that Corps 26th January, 1758. In the following year he exchanged into the 16th Light Dragoons, then commanded by Lt. Col. John Burgoyne, and was appointed Captain in the Army 27th April, 1761, and became Major 15th July, 1768. He went on half pay in the fore part of 1773, and in April, 1776, was appointed to the command of the Irish Invalids, who were then called in active service. He accompanied this expedition as Adjutant General and Military Secretary to General Burgoyne and was promoted to be Lieutenant Colonel in the Army 29th Augurt, 1777. Gen. Wilkinson gives the following particulars of some of the incidents connected with the negotiations which were carried on between Gates and Burgoyne at this time. After the former consented to receive a Field Officer, I askcd him, says Wilkinson, whether he had not condescendcd improperly in agreeing to receive the deputy of his adversary at his head quarters, within his guards, and between the lines of his army. After a minute's reflexion he replied, "You are right, young man. I was hasty. But what's to be done." "I will meet the flag, said I, and endeavour to draw the message from the officer; but if he claims your engagement, he must be admitted." "Agreed," said he, "do so." And at the hour appointed I repaired to the advanced port, accompanied by Mr. Henry Livingston, of the Upper Manor on the Hudson's river. The bridge across the Fishkill had been destroyed, but the sleepers remained. We did not wait many minutes before the chamade was beat at the advanced guard of the enemy, and an officer descending the hill, stepped across the creek on one of the sleepers of the late bridge; it was " Major Kingston, with a Message from Lieutenant-general Burgoyne to Major-general Gates. I named to him Col. Wilkinson, on the part ot General Gates, to receive the message." He paused a moment, pulled out a paper, looked at it, and observed, "My orders direct me to Major-general Gates." "It is to save time and trouble that I am authorized to receive the message you bear." He then took General Gates's note to General Burgoyne from his pocket, read it, and said, "General Gates has agreed to receive the message, and I am not authorized to deliver it to any other person." "Well then, Sir, You must submit to be hoodwinked." He affected to start at the proposition, and objected, on the ground of its being an indignity. I could but smile at the expression, and observed, that I had understood there was nothing more common than to blindfold military  messengers, when they were admitted within the walls of a place, or the guards of a camp. He replied, " Well, Sir, I will submit to it, but under the express stipulation, that no indignity is intended to the British arms." I then carefully bound up his eyes with his own handkerchief; he took my arm, and in this way we walked upwards of a mile to head quarters.



This was, after some conversation, agreed to by Major General Gates.


Fixed by Major Kingfton to be upon the Ground where Mr. Schuyler's House stood.


Major Kingston appeared to be about forty; he was a well formed, ruddy, handsome man, and expatiated with taste and eloquence on the beautiful scenery on the Hudson's river, and the charms of the season. When I introduced him into General Gates's tent, and named him, the gentlemen saluted each other familiarly, with " General Gates, your servant," — " Ah ! Kingston, how do you do?" and a shake of the hand. Being seated a few minutes, he arose and observed he had certain communications to make Major General Gates from Lieutenant General Burgoyne, and to guard against inaccuracy of memory, he had committed them to paper, and with permission would read them. The General consented, and the Major took from his pocket and read : " The General from a deal of business did not yesterday answer your letter about the officers, but intended it. In regard  to the reproaches made upon this army of burning the country, they are unjust; General Schuyler's house and adjacent buildings remained protected till General  Gates's troops approached the Ford. General Burgoyne avows the order for setting fire at that  time to everything that covered the movement. The barracks particularly took fire by mere accident, and measures were taken, though ineffectual, to save them. If there has been any vindictive spirit in burning other buildings on the march, it has probably been done by some secret well-wishers to the American cause, as General Burgoyne has been informed that fome of the buildings belonged to supposed friends of the king. The General does not think that General Gates has a right, from anything that has appeared in his conduct or reasoning, to make use of the term trifling; and he still persists, that he cannot interfere with the prisoners in General Howe's army, and more especially in a case that has been under negociation between Gen. Howe and General Walhington." He added that General Gates would perceive this was an answer to his letter of the 12th, and that the other paper to which he claimed the General's attention was of a very different nature; he then offered, [as printed under No. 2, p. 133.] So soon as he had finished, to my utter astonishment. General Gates put his hand to his side pocket, pulled out a paper, and presented it to Kingston, observing, "There, Sir, are the Terms on which Gen.  Burgoyne must surrender." The Major appeared thunderstruck, but read the paper, whilst the old chief surveyed him attentively through his spectacles. Having finished the perusal of the propositions of Gen. Gates, Major Kingston appeared cxceedingly mortified, and said to the General, " I must beg leave to decline delivering this paper to Lieutenant General Burgoync, because, although I cannot presume to speak for him, I think the propositions it contains cannot be submitted to." The General observed he might be mistaken, and that there could be no impropriety in his delivering them. Kingston requested they might be sent by one of his own officers, which the General declined, and remarked, "that as he had brought the message, he ought to take back the answer." To which the Major reluctantly consented, took leave, and I again filletted him, and at his request conducted him to our advanced guard. Very different was his conversation in returning: he complained of General Gates's propositions, to which I was still a perfect stranger; talked of the pride and spirit of his army, and called my recollection to the feats performed by six British regiments at the battle of Minden, I felt for his chagrin, and said nothing to increase it; and having passed him beyond our guards, I hastened back to head quarters. About sunset the same day it was notified to me that a flag waited at the advanced guard, and I proceeded to receive it. I again met Major Kingston, who presented another message from Lieutenant General Burgoyne to Major General Gates, accompanied by the propositions of the latter, which had been transmitted by Major Kingfton, and the answers of the former annexed, together with the preliminary articles, proposed by General Burgoync, which were substantially assented to by General Gates. Burgoyne made his own Convention, and saved his accoutrements, military chest, and colours, all of which were retained notwithstanding Genera! Gates's letter to Congress of the 3rd December, 1777, which was unworthy of a soldier.1 Capt. Kingston returned to England in 1778 and was examined before a Committee of the Houfe of Commons relative to this Expedition. In September, 1779, he was appointed Lieutenant  Colonel of the 86th Foot, and in 1780 of the 28th regiment; became Colonel in the Army 20th November,  1782; Major General in 1793, and died in 1794.

1 Wilkinson's Memoirs, I., 299-304.



Q. What became of the rest of the money in the military chest?

A. It was taken by the paymaster-general to Albany.

Q. Did any part of it fall into the hands of the enemy ?

A. Not a shilling that I ever heard of.

Examination of Colonel Kingston before the House of Commons,


2 General Riedesel commanded that the colours should not be surrendered to the enemy with the arms, but on the contrary that the staffs should be burnt and the flags carefully packed up; this was done as ordered, so that each of the German regiments really kept possession of their colours; and the same was no doubt the case with the British corps, as the colours of the 62nd regiment particularly were on the field the 19th Septm ber, and three or four Ensigns were killed. —Memoirs of the Baroness of Riedesel.



No. 7.


In the coursee of the night Lieutenant General Burgoync has received intelligence that a considerable force has been detached from the Army under the Command of Major General Gates during the course of the Negociations of the Treaty depending between them. Lieutenant General Burgoyne conceives this, if true, to be not only a violation of the Cessation of Arms, but subvertive of the principles on which the Treaty originated, viz., a great superiority of numbers in General Gates's Army. Lieut. General Burgoyne therefore requires that two Officers on his part be permitted to see that the strength of the forces now opposed to him is such as will convince him that no luch Detach- ments have been made, and that the fame principle of Superiority on which the Treaty first began still exists.


16th Oct. 1777.


N. B. Lieut. Colonel Wilkinson, Adjt. General to General Gates, came to Genl. Burgoyne, and declared upon his own and General Gates's word of honour, that no Detachment nor movement had been made since the opening of the Treaty.


No. 8.


Message to Lieut. General Burgoyne from Major General Gates, Oct. 16th, 1777, by Colonel Wilkinson.


Major General Gates, in justice to his own reputation, condescends to assure your Excellency, that no violation of the Treaty has taken place on his part, since the commencement of it. I have fursther to inform your Excellency that the requisition contained in your Message of this day is inadmissible; and as it now remains with your Excellency to ratify or dissolve the Treaty, Major General Gates expects your immediate reply.


Lieut. Gen. Burgoyne requested time to lay the Message before his Council, which was granted, and the Treaty was signed and exchanged in the Evening.


Articles of Convention between Lieutenant General Burgoyne and Major General Gates.



The Troops under Lieut. Genl. Burgoyne to march out of their Camp with the Honours of War, and the Artillery of the Intrenchments, to the Verge of the River, where the Old Fort stood; where the Arms and Artillery are to be left. The Arms are to be piled by Word of Command of their own Officers.




A free Passage to be granted to the Army under Lieut. General Burgoyne, to Great Britain, on Condition of not serving again in North America during the present Contest; and the Port of Boston is assigned for the Entry of Transports to receive the Troops whenever General Howe shall so order.




Should any Cartel take place by which the Army under General Burgoyne, or any part of it, may be exchanged, the foregoing Article to be void, as far as such exchange shall be made.




The Army under Lieut. Genl. Burgoyne to march to Massachufetts Bay by the easiest, most expeditious and convenient Routes; and to be quartered in, near, or as convenient as possible, to Boston, that the march of the Troops may not be delayed when Transports arrive to receive them.



The Troops to be supplied on their March and during being in Quarters, with Provisions, by General Gates's Orders, at the same Rate of Rations as the Troops of his own Army; and if possible, the Officer's Horses and Cattle are to be supplied with Forage at the usual Rates.  




All Officers to retain their Carriages, Bat Horses, and other Cattle, and no Baggage to be molested nor searched, Lieut. General Burgoyne giving his Honour that there are no public Stores secreted therein. Major General Gates will of courfs take the necessary Measures for the due performance of this Article. Should any Carriages be wanted during the March for the Transportation of Officers' Baggage, they are if possible to be supplied by the Country at the usual Rates.




Upon the March and during the Time the Army shall remain in Quarters in the Massachusetts Bay, the Officers are not, as far as Circumstances will admit, to be separated from their Men. The Officers are to be quartered according to Rank, and are not to be hindered from assembling their Men for Roll-Callings, and other necessary purposes of Regularity.




All Corps whatever of General Burgoyne's Army, whether compofsd of Sailors, Batteau Men, Artificers, Drivers, Independent Companies and Followers of the Army, of whatever Country, shall be included in the fullest Sense, and utmost Extent of the above Articles, and comprehended in every Respect as Britifh Subjects.



All Canadians and Persons belonging to the Canadian Establishment, consisting of Sailors, Batteau Men, Artificers, Drivers, Independent Companies, and many other Followers of the Army, who come under no particular Description, are to be permitted to return there; they are to be conducted immediately by the shortest Route, to the first British Post on Lake George; are to be supplied with Provisions in the same Manner as the other Troops, and are to be bound by the same condition of not serving during the present Contest in North America.



Passports to be immediately granted for three Officers not exceeding the Rank, of Captains, who shall be appointed by Lieut. General Burgoyne to carry Dispatches to Sir William Howe, Sir Guy Carleton and to Great Britain, by the Way of New York; and Major General Gates engages the publick Faith, that the Despatches fhall not be opened. These Officers are to set out immediately after receiving their Despatches, and are to travel the shorteft Route, and in the most expeditious manner.



During the stay of the Troops in Massachufetts Bay, the Officers are to be admitted on Pairole, and are to be permitted to wear their Side Arms.



Should the Army under Lieutenant General Burgoyne find it necessary to send for their Cloathing and other Baggage to Canada, they are to be permitted to do it in the most convenient Manner, and the necessary Passports granted for that Purpose.


These Articles are to be mutually signed and exchanged tomorrow Morning at 9 o'clock, and the Troops under Lieut. General Burgoyne are to march out of their Intrenchments at three o'clock in the Afternoon.


Camp at Saratoga, 16th Oft. 1777. (Signed),


Horatio Gates,


Major General.


To prevent any Doubts that might arise from Lieut. General Burgoyne's name not being mentioned in the above Treaty, Major General Gates hereby Declares that he is understood to be comprehended in it as fully as if his name had been specifically mentioned. (Signed),


Horatio Gates.




Major General Philip Schuyler.


No. 9.


Letter from Capt. Craig1 to Col. Wilkinson.



Upon reporting the Proceedings of this evening to Lieut. General Burgoyne, I was happy to receive his approbation of and ready concurrence



1 James Henry Craig, of the Craigs of Dalnair and Colbirton, Scotland, was born in 1748 at Gibraltar, where his father held the appointment of civil and military judge. He entered the Army 1st June, 1763, as Ensign in the 30th regiment, then in garrison in that Fortress. In 1769 he was promoted to a lieutenancy, and in 1770 was appointed Aid-de-Camp to General Sir Robert Boyd, then Governor of Gibraltar. In March, 1771, he obtained a company in the 47th regiment, with which he went to America in 1774. His company formed part of the reinforcement sent by Gen. Gage to dislodge the Americans from their position on Bunker Hill, 17th June, 1775, on which occasion he was feverely wounded. On the evacuation of Boston, his regiment was ordered to Halifax and thence to Quebec, where it arrived on the 8th May, 1776. It was thence sent up the St. Lawrence and Captain Craig commanded his company in the action at Three Rivers, and the advanced guard of the Army in pursuit of the retreating Americans. In this campaign he was engaged in the battle of Hubbardton, when he was again severely wounded, and received a third wound at the battle at Freeman's Farm, September 19th. At the close of the campaign Capt. Craig was one of the officers selected to settle the subordinate Articles of the Treaty preparatory to the surrender of Burgoyne's Army. At his request, the Term Capitulation was changed to Convention. He was sent immedateiy after this with despatches to England, and Government having resolved to raise ten new regiments, Capt. Craig was appointed Major of the 82nd, 25th December, 1777, and proceeded to Halifax in 1778. He was engaged in 1779 in the operations on the Penobscot (Maine); was afterwards ordered to the South; and in 1781 was dispatched to take possession of Wilmington, N. C, which he occupied until the Autumn, when, informed of the Surrender of Cornwallis, he abandoned the place and fled precipitately to Charleston. He became Lieutenant-Colonel of his regiment 31st December, 1781; in 1783 was transferred to the 16th Foot, and was appointed Colonel in the Army 18th November, 1790. In 1794 he obtained the rank of Major General, and in the beginning of the following year was sent on the expedition to the Cape of Good Hope, which having been reduced, he was appointed Governor of the Colony. In August, 1795, he became Colonel ot the 46th regiment. He remained at the Cape until 1797, and as a reward for his services was made Knight of the Bath. Having returned to England he was ordered to India, in which country he served five years. In January, 1801, he was promoted to the rank of Lieut. General, and in 1802 returned to England, where he was put in command of the Eastern District. In January, 1804, he was appointed Colonel of the 86th Foot; in 1805 was selected to command the Troops in the Mediterranean; proceeded to Lisbon, Gibraltar, Malta, and thence to Naples, and after the battle of Austerlitz withdrew to Sicily. He returned to England in 1806, and was appointed Colonel ot the 22d regiment. In Auguft, 1807, he was appointed Governor in Chief of British North America, with the local rank of General; but however qualified he might have been for a camp, his administration of the affairs of Canada showed him altogether unfit for the duties of a civil governor. Weak, suspicious, and hasty; perhaps from ill health and a broken down constitution; he soon became the tool of a few rapacious, overbearing and irresponsible officials; saw in every opponent of his policy a disaffected rebel; seized liberal presses and suppressed opposition newspapers; imprisoned editors, at and during, his pleasure, and employed spies to discover treason in Canada and to foment and encourage it in the United States. After a troublesome administration of four years he embarked for England on the 19th June, 1811, thoroughly detested by the people, and confessing, it is said, on his departure, that among his professing friends he had experienced more deception and ingratitude in Canada than in the whole course of his life before coming to it. Sir James H. Craig did not long survive his return to England. He died of dropsy in January, 1812, aged 62 years. He had been nearly 50 years in the Army, and during that time had not been a day on half pay.



in every article that has been agreed on between us. It however appears upon a retrofpedt of the Treaty, that our zeal to compleat it expeditioufly has led us into the admiffion of a Term in the Title, very different from his meaning and that of the principle Officers of his Army, who have been confulted on this important occafion. We have. Sir, unguardedly called that a Treaty of Capitulation, which the Army means only as a Treaty of Convention; with the single alteration of this word Lieut. Col. Sutherland and myself will meet you at the stipulated time tomorrow morning, with the fair Copy signed by General Burgoyne.


I hope, Sir, you will excuse my troubling you so late; but I thought it better than by any delay to prevent the speedy conclusion of a Treaty, which seems to be the wish of both parties, and which may prevent the further effusion of blood between us. I beg your immediate answer. I am. Sir,


Your obedient humble servant,


James Henry Craig,


Capt. 47th Reg. Camp at Saratoga,

13th Oct., half past 10 o'clock.



Colonel Wilkinson's Compliments to Capt. Craig; Major General Gates will admit the alteration.


[Appended to the foregoing pages in another hand writing, said to be that of Gov. Clinton, are the two following papers.]


When General Burgoyne arrived at Bemises Heights, he was received by Gen. Gates at the Head of the Continental Army, which was drawn up on that occasion. Gen. Gates advanced to receive him, told him he was glad to see him. Gen. Burgoyne replyd, I am not glad to see you; it is my Fortune, Sir, but not my Fault. Gen. Schuyler's Carriage was sent for, to receive and conduct Gen. Reidsel, his wife and five children to Albany. Gen. Burgoyne and the rest of the Staff Officers were escorted on Horseback. They all dined at General Schuyler's. At Table General Gates drank the King of Great Britain's Health. Gen. Burgoyne in return thanked him, and in the next Glass drank the Continental Congress. Gen. Burgoyne observed to Gen. Gates, he admired the Number, Dress and Discipline of his Army; but above all, the Decorum and Regularity that was observed; said. Your Funds of Men are inexhaustible, like the Hydra's Head, when cut off, seven more sprang up in its stead.


When Gen. Burgoyne arrived in Albany, the Boys gathering round, cryed out, "Make Elbow Room there" — the Rejoycing Word.


The Number of Prisoners Surrendered by Capitulation under the Command of Lt. General Burgoyne the 16th of October, 1777.


British Prisoners, 2442

Foreign do,  2198

General Burgoyne and Staff Officers, including fix Members of Parliament, 12

Sent to Canada, 1100

Sick and Wounded, 598

Total, 6350


Prisoners before the Surrender, 400

Deserters, 300

Lost at Bennington, 1220

Killed between the 17th Sept. and the 18th October, 600

Taken at Ticonderoga, 413

Killed at Gen. Herkimer's Battle, 300

Total, 3233


Grand Total, 9583


Ordnance, Stores, &c. taken.


6 Pieces of Cannon at Bennington.

2 do and 4 Royals at Fort Schuyler.

400 Set of Harness, a Number of Ammunition Waggons and Horses.

5000 Stand of Arms.

37 Pieces of Brass Cannon, Implements and Stores Compleat.


The above is exclusive of Indians, Teamsters and Suttlers.








1. MAJOR General von Riedesel, (See supra, p. 103).


2. Captain Heinrich Dan. Gerlach, Quarter Mailer General; died 29th Sept., 1798, Lieutenant Colonel and Commander of the Artillery at Brunswick.


3. Captain Laurence O'Connel; was taken prisoner at Bennington; attained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and died in 18 19, in Ireland, on half pay.


4. Lieutenant Friedrich Christian Cleve, (See post.)


5. Paymaster General Johannes Conr. Godecke, died 25th Dec., 1782, in America.


Dragoon Regiment.


1. Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich Baum, (See supra, p. 82.)


2. Major Just. Christoph von Maibom; was taken prisoner at Bennington, and died at Wolfenbuttel, 17th Feb., 1804.


3. Captain Carl von Schlagenteuffel; was taken prisoner at Bennington; left the army in 1788.


4. Captain Heinrich Christian Fricke; died a Major 3d July, 1808. at Konigflutter.


5. Captain Carl Friedrich von Reinking; killed in the battle of Bennington, 16th Aug., 1777.


6. Captain Adolph von Schlagenteuffel; retired from the service with the rank of Major in 1783.


7. Lieutenant Aug. Wilhelm Breva; was taken prisoner at Bennington; died 16th Aug., 1790, Chief Captain (hauptman) of Invalids at Blankenburg.


8. Lieutenant Otto Arnold von Sommerlatte; pensioned in 1783 on account of blindness.


9. Lieutenant Carl Friedrich von Reckrodt; taken prisoner at Bennington; deserted from Wolfenbuttel, 12th Aug., 1784.


10. Lieutenant Friedrich Wilhelm Dietrich von Bothmer; was taken prisoner at Bennington; discharged in 1783 with the rank of Captain.


11. Lieutenant August Friedrich Heinrich Bornemann; retired in 1788, and entered the Dutch service; died in India.


12. Cornet August Ludwig Lucas Grufe; was taken prisoner at Bennington; remained by permission in America in 1783; returned to Germany the following year, and died Governor of the Prince of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.


13. Cornet Johan Balthazar Stutzer; was taken prisoner at Bennington; was quartered at Springfield in 1788; died half-pay Lieutenant Colonel in Brunswick, 29th Nov., 1821.


14. Cornet Johan Friedrich Schonewald; was taken prisoner at Bennington; quartered at Westminfter in 1788; died Lieutenant Colonel on half pay, in Brunswick, 5th July, 1826.


15. Chaplain Carl Melsheimer; deserted nth May, 1779.


16. Auditor Thomas; taken prisoner at Bennington; remained by permission in America in 1783.


17. Surgeon Borbrodt; prisoner at Bennington; pensioned in 1783.


Grenadier Regiment.


1. Lieutenant Colonel Heinrich Christoph Breymann, (See p. 82).


2. Captain Ernst August von Bartling; taken prisoner at Bennington; died Lieutenant Colonel in command of the regiment, at Maestricht, 1st Jan., 1793.


3. Capt. Albrecht Daniel von Lohneysen; died 2d May, 1820, at Nemlingen.


4. Captain Gottlob Dietrich von Schick; killed at Bennington.


5. Captain August Wilhelm von Hambach; retired in 1783.


6. Lieutenant Heinrich Wilhelm Uhlig; became Captain in 1783.


7. Lieutenant Theodor Friedrich Gebbard; was taken prisoner at Bennington; died Lieut. Col. at Brunswick, 3rd June, 1810, on half pay.


8. Lieutenant August Wilhelm Helmecke; discharged in 1783.


9. Lieutenant Christian Wilhelm Trott; retired in 1783.


10. Lieutenant Otto Heinrich Rudolph; died Lieutenant Colonel at Brunswick, 3rd June, 1810.


11. Lieutenant Gebbard Thedel Friedrich von Wallmoden; died Major unattached at Alten- Wallmoden, 2d Sept., 1807.


12. Lieutenant Ludwig Casimir von Muzell; attained the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and died 28th July, 1814, Groom in Waiting to his Serene Highness Prince George of Brunswick.


13. Lieutenant Johann Andreas Meyer; was taken at Bennington.


14. Lieutenant Johann Jacob von Meyern; died 3rd July, 1802, Chief Captain of the Company of Invalids at Blankenburg.


15. Lieutenant Carl Franz d'Anniers; died prisoner at Bennington in 1777.


16. Lieutenant Gottfried Jul. Winterschmidt; deserted in 1779.


17. Lieutenant Johann Caspar Balke; died in America in 1778.


18. Surgeon Henkel; died in America in 1778.


Prince Frederic's Regiment.


I1. Lieutenant Colonel Christian Julius Pratorius; died on half pay loth April, 1794, at Holzminden.


2. Major Friedrich Wilhelm von Hille; attained the rank of Major General, and was appointed Commandant of Wolfenbuttel; he died at Brunswick, 29th April, 1805.


3. Captain Adolph Lorenz Dietrich; died Lieutenant Colonel at Wolfenbuttel, loth March, 1794.


4. Captain Carl August Heinrich von Tunterfeld; died Chamberlain at Brunswick, 4th June, 1802.


5. Captain Jacob Christian Sander; died Lieutenant Colonel at Wolfenbuttel, 14th March, 1799.


6. Captain Friedrich Albrecht Rosenberg; retired with the rank of Major in 1788.


7. Capt. Georg Ernst von Zielber; died at Horter, 23d Feb., 1797.


8. Lieutenant Ernst Christian Schroder; died in 1783.


9. Lieutenant Friedrich von dem Knesebeck; retired from the servicc in 1783.


10. Lieutenant Friedrich Wilhelm Volckmar; retired in 1783.


11. Lieutenant Joh. Fried. Harz; appointed Secretary of the Klosterrath in 1787.


12. Lieutenant Johann Gottfried Wolgart; died Lieutenant Colonel at Wolfenbuttel, 2nd Oct., 1825.


13. Lieutenant Gottl. Christ, von Reitzenstein; remained by permission in America in 1783.


14. Lieutenant Johann Friedrich Heinrich Burghoff; was taken prisoner at Bennington, and died in America in 1780.


15. Lieutenant August Wilhelm du Roi; after a service of over fifty years, this officer, in a fit of melancholy, committed suicide by drowning, on the 23d March, 1814. At the time of his death he held the rank of Lieut. Colonel, and filled the office of Commissary General.


16. Lieutenant Christian Friedrich Wiesener; retired in 1783.


17. Lieutenant Edmund Victor von Konig; remained in America by permission in 1783.


18. Ensign Siegfr. Heinr. Lancerjahn; remained in America by permission in 1783.


19. Ensign Carl Friedrich Christ, von Adelsheim; deserted 1780.


20. Enfign Johann Christian Sternberg; died Commissary of Provisions at Wolfenbuttel, 16th Nov., 1799.


21. Ensign Carl Wilhelm Reinerding; died at Blankenburg, 14th March, 181 5.


22. Ensign Friedrich Kolte; remained in America by permission in 1783.


23. Chaplain Friedrich August FiIcerer: discharged Oct., 1779.


24. Chaplain Friedrich Wilhelm Conrad Schrader; was sent to America in April, 1779, with recruits, and died 19th Dec, 1792, Pallor of Beierftedt.


25. Auditor Paul Gottfried Frans Wolpers; died Register in Chancery at Wolfenbuttel, 11th May, 1802.


26. Surgeon Johan August Berndt; died 27th Feb., 1807, Town Surgeon at Holzminden.


Regiment of Rhetz.


1. Lieutenant Colonel Johan Gustav von Ehrenkrock; died the 22nd March, 1783, at Three Rivers, in Canada, and was buried with military honors on the 27th of the same month, in the garrison burying ground of that town.


2. Major Balthasar Bogislaus von Lucre.


3. Captain Ludewig von Schlagenteuffel; died in 1783 at Calvorde.


4. Captain Conrad Anton Alers; died at Brunswick 17th Odlober, 1810, Major unattached.


5. Captain Georg Philip Arend; died loth Dec, 1803, Lieutenant Colonel unattached.


6. Captain Heinrich Urban Cleve; died 2d Jan., 1808, at Salzgitter.


7. Captain Wilhelm Ludwig Fredersdorff; was wounded on the 7th Oft., 1777, in the battle of Freeman's Farm, and died at Albany in the following year.


8. Lieutenant George Bodemeyer; died a Captain at Maeftricht, 1793.




9. Lieutenant Friedrich Julius von Papet; died a Captain at Maestricht 5th April, 1793.


10. Lieutenant Curt von Hessler; discharged in 1783 with the rank of Captain.


11. Lieutenant Friedrich Leopold Engelhard Meyer; died 6th Dec., 1802, Inspector of Excise at Scefen.


12. Lieutenant Thedel Wilhelm Bielstein; permitted to remain in America in 1783.


13. Lieutenant Carl Friedrich Conrad; dischargcd in 1783, and returned to America.


14. Lieutenant Hans Philip Heinrich von Dobeneck; died Captain in 1796, at Holzmindcn.


15. Lieutenant Carl Ludwig Petersen; died 7th May, 1 814, at Meerdorf.


16. Lieutenant Christian Heinrich Modrach; died a Captain 18th August, 1803, at Bevern.


17. Lieutenant Johann Ludwig von Unger; died 2d May, 1805, at Salzliebenhalle.


18. Lieutenant Friedrich Wilhelm Feichel; died Captain at Brunswick, 29th May, 1794.


19. Enfign Friedrich Bandel; deserted his regiment in 1779.


20. Enfign Bernhard Erich; discharged in 1783.


21. Enfign Johan Friedrich Bode; died 19th Sept., 1783, at Stade, on his return from America.


22. Enfign Johan Heinrich Godecke; transferred to a regiment of the line (land-regimente) in 1783.


23. Chaplain Christian Timotheus Togel; died 1st Oct., 1797, Pastor of Great Twulpstedt.


24. Auditor Schmidt; transferred to Riedesel's regiment in 1783.


25. Surgeon Johann Friedrich Schrader; died i6th Dec, 1804, at Brunswick.


Riedesel's Regiment.


1 . Lieutenant Colonel Ernst Ludewig Wilhelm von Speth; taken prifoncr 7th Oft., 1777, at Freeman's Farm; died 27th Oct., 1800, Major General and Commandant at Wolfenbuttel.


2. Major Otto Carl Anton von Mengen; died Lieutenant Colonel unattached, at Luneburg, i8th May, 1797.


3. Captain Julius Ludwig August von Pollnitz'; died 29th March, 1805, Major General and Commandant at Wolfenbuttel.


4. Captain Carl Friedrich Morgenstern; discharged with the rank of Major.


5. Captain Carl Friedrich von Bartling; died in 1783 at Munster, on the march from America to Brunswick.


6. Captain Gottlieb Benjamin Harbor; died a Captain on half pay.


7. Captain Ernst Heinrich Wilhelm von Girsewald; died Major General at Brunswick, l6th Jan., 1818.


8. Lieutenant Wilhelm Hoyer; died in America in 1782.


9. Lieutenant Johan Carl Morgenstern; died a Captain at Brunswick, 8th Dec, 1787.


10. Lieutenant Friedrich Carl Reinking; died a Captain.


11. Lieutenant Ludwig Traugott von Burgdorff; discharged in 1786.


12. Lieutenant August Theodor Gottfried Wolgart; died a Major at Brunswick, 4th March, 1821.


13. Lieut. Heinrich Julius Freyenhagen; died in America in 1777.


14. Lieutenant Christian Theodor von Pincier; discharged in 1784, and returned to America.


15. Lieutenant Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Cramm; died a Captain at Maestricht, 3rd Feb., 1794.


16. Lieut. Ludwig Gottlieb VON Meyern; died in America in 1781.


17. Enfign Ernst Christian Heinrich Brander; discharged, 1786.


18. Enfign Ludwig Unverzagt; died in America in 1776.


19. Enfign Carl Christoph von Maibom; died 26th April, 1794, on the return march from Maestricht to Holzminden.


20. Ensign Raymond Gottlieb Heberlin; taken prifoner at Freeman's Farm, 7th Oft., \'7T!; died a Captain 6th Oft., 1796, at Helmftedt.


21 . Ensign Carl Conrad Andree; taken prisoner at Bennington; died Lieutenant in a regiment of the line.


22. Ensign Friedrich Ludwig Denecke; was taken prisoner at Ben- nington, 16th Aug., 1777; and resided at Westminfter in Jan., 1778,


23. Ensign Heinrich Friedrich von Forstner; discharged in 1794.


24. Chaplain Johann August Milius; died 17th January, 1819, Pastor of Salder.


25. General Staff Auditor Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Zinken; died 3d Aug., 1806, Judge at Seesen.


26. Surgeon Pralle; died at Jcrrheim.


Specht's Regiment.


1. Colonel Johann Friedrich Specht; died 24th June, 1787, at Brunswick.


2. Major Carl Friedrich von Ehrenkrock; died 17th July, 1797, at Brunswick.


3. Captain Leopold Franz Friedrich Balthazar von Plessen; died 6th Feb., 1808, at Gandersheim.


4. Captain Aug. Conr. von Lutzow; died Colonel, 26th Nov. 1799, at Brunswick.


5. Captain Bernh. Rich. von Dahlstirna; wounded on the 7th Oct., 1777, in the battle at Freeman's Farm, and died the year following at Albany.


6. Captain George von Schlagenteuffel; died 15th Aug., 1818, Upper Bailiff at Schoppenlfedt.


7. Captain Heinrich Jager; died in 1782, in America.


8. Lieutenant Johann Heinrich Meyer; died 23rd Oct., 1800, Postmaster at Helmfledt.


9. Lieutenant Daniel Arnold Hertel; died 1st Aug., 1799, at Konigslutter.


10. Lieutenant August Wilhelm von Papet; died Colonel at Brunswick, 25th July, 1808.


11. Lieut. Heinrich Anton David Dove; died in 1780 in America.


12. Lieutenant Christian Friedrich von Milkau; discharged, 1783.


13. Lieutenant Friedrich Ernst Oldekopf; appointed Secretary of the post department in 1784, and died in that office.


14. Lieutenant Heinrich Daniel de Anniers; discharged in 1783.


15. Lieutenant Johann Friedrich Julius Kellner; died 30th Nov., 1808, Commissary at Brunswick.


16. Lieutenant Anton Adolph Heinrich du Roi; died Lieutenant Colonel at Brunswick, 19th Aug., 1823.


17. Lieutenant Friedrich Bodo von Unger; died Counsellor at Salzgitter, nth Nov., 1819.


18. Ensign Johann Heinrich Carl von Bernewitz; died Lieutenant General and Commandant at Brunswick, 13th Dec., 1821.


19. Ensign Friedrich von Redeken; died in 1777, in America.


20. Ensign Johann Edmund Fromme; died Major at Wolfcnbuttel, 8th May, 1822.


21. Ensign Samuel Jacob Anton von Ulmenstei; died Lieutenant 9th July, 1793.


22. Enfign Grimpe; died at Brunswick.


23. Chaplain Kohle.


24. Chaplain Munchhoff.


25. Auditor Behr.


26. Surgeon Johann Carl Bause; died General Staff Physician unattached, at Brunswick, 15th Dec, 1814.


Rifle (Jager) Regiment.


1. Major Ferdinand Albr. von Barker; died Colonel, 2nd Oct., 1797.


2. Captain Georg Ludewig Thoma; died Captain at Woltenbuttel, 10th Jan., 1800.


3. Captain Carl von Geyso; taken prisoner at Freeman's Farm; at Rutland in 1778; discharged in 1783, with the rank of Major.


4. Captain August Friedrich Dommes; taken prisoner at Bennington; died Chief Commissary at Blankenburg, 6th Jan., 1 802.


5. Captain Maximilian Christoph Ludwig Schottelius; died Postmaster at Holzminden, 3rd Dec, 1807.


6. Captain Gottlieb Joachim von Gliessenberg; taken prisoner at Freeman's Farm, in 1777; in Albany in 1778; died Colonel and Commandant at Wolfenbuttel, 20th Feb., 1801.


7. Lieutenant Johann Caspar Hahnemann; died Forest Ranger.


8. Lieutenant Philip Sigismund Cruse; died Captain in the line.


9. Lieutenant Johann Gottfried Kotte; died at Quebec in 1776.


10. Lieutenant Albrecht Christian Rabe; died at Konigflutter, 18th Oct., 1806.


11. Lieutenant Johann Gottlieb von Gladen; died Major at Wolfenbuttel, 14th Dec, 1827.


12. Lieutenant Carl Anton Ludwig Muhlenfeldt; killed at the battle of Bennington.


13. Lieutenant Johann Friedrich Pfluger; died in America, 1777.


14. Lieutenant Andreas Meyer; died at the Ducal Caftle at Salzdahlum, 7th Dec, 1795.


15. Lieutenant Georg Friedrich Gebhard Fricke; died Postmaster at Goflar, 19th Nov., 1807.


16. Lieutenant Johann Andreas Bode; killed at the battle of Freeman's Farm, 7th Oct., 1777.


17. Lieutenant Caspar Friedrich Rohr; discharged in 1783.


18. Ensign Wilhelm Lucas Rhenius; died at Drangftedt 30th Sept., 1783, on the march from America to Brunswick.


19. Ensign Johann Jul. Anton Specht; taken prisoner at Bennington; remained by permission in America in 1783.


20. Ensign Johann von Begert; drowned in America in 1777.


21. Ensign Georg Leopold Hegemann; killed at the battle of Bennington.


22. Ensign Ernst August Count von Rantzau; taken prisoner at Freeman's Farm; drowned in the Schuylkill.


23. Surgeon Kunze; died on half pay.




Brigade Major Cleve.


FREDERICK Christian Cleve was the youngest son of the Chamberlain of the Court of Brunswick, in which city he was born in 1739. In the year 1759, he entered the service as Corporal in the Regiment of Imhof, in which corps two of his brothers held commissions. On the 7th May, 1759, he was promoted to an Enfigncy, and on the 18th Sept., 1761, was appointed Lieutenant. At the end of the war he was discharged. On the breaking out of the American war he was appointed Adjutant in Gen. Riedesel's staff, with the rank of Lieutenant, and on returning to his native country in 1783, was promoted to a Company in Riedesel's newly organized regiment of Infantry. On 23d Dec, 1788, he was appointed Major and served in Holland until 1794. On the return of his regiment to Brunswick, he was placed at the head of the Military Academy; on 22nd Dec., 1798, advanced to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and on 28th April, 1801, to that of Colonel. He took an active part in organizing the Westphalian army, and in 1817 was appointed Major General. Full of years, and with the character of a moral and religious Soldier, he died on the 6th of January, 1836, in the 88th year of his age.


Major Irwing.


PAULUS Aemilius Irving was born at Waterford, Ireland, August 30th, 1751; he was the only son of Lieutenant Colonel Irving, of Woodhouse, County of Dumfries, Scotland, Governor of Upnor Castle, and at one time President of the Council in Quebec. He was appointed to a Lieutenancy in the 47th regiment, on the 15th June, 1764, and obtained his company 29th October, 1768; came to America in 1774, and on 31st March, 1775, became Major of his regiment. According to Philippart, he was in the battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill, and in

Boston during the blockade. On the evacuation of that city, he accompanied his regiment to Quebec, was at the affair of Three Rivers in June, 1776, and followed the Americans to Ticonderoga. At the close of Burgoyne's campaign. Major Irving shared the fate of the rest of the army. He remained a prisoner three years; towards the close of 1780 he obtained the brevet rank of Lieutenant Colonel, and became Lieutenant Colonel of his regiment 3rd August, 1781, when he returned to England, and in 1786 married Lady Elizabeth St. Lawrence, second daughter of the first Earl of Howth. In 1790 he went to the Bahamas, became Major General in 1794, and joined Sir John Vaughan's army in the Weft Indies in 1795. On the death of that officer that year, Major General Irving succeeded to the chief command of the army in those parts. In September he went to St. Vincents, and on 2nd October achieved a decisive victory over the French at St. Vigie, for which he received the thanks of the king. He returned to England at the close of 1795, and in 1801, was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General, became Colonel of the 6th Veteran Battalion in 1802; and was raised to the dignity of a Baronet in 1809. In 1812 he reached the rank of General, and died at Carlisle in 1828, aged 76 years. Some writers confound this officer with his father, in consequence of both having the same name.


Lieutenant Beecroft.


RICHARD Beecroft entered the 24th regiment of Foot as Ensign in 1761; was promoted to a Lieutenancy in February, 1766. When theAmericans attacked Ticonderoga in September, 1777, Lieut. Beecroft was stationed with some troops on Mount Independence, where he greatly distinguished himself, and in confequence obtained a company in October following; in 1781 he exchanged, or was transferred, to the l01st regiment. This regiment being disbanded in 1785, Capt. Beecroft went on halfpay and so remained until 1796, when his name disappears from the Army List.


Lord Viscount Peterborough.


CHARLES Stanhope, Viscount Petersham, eldest son of William 2nd Earl of Harrington, was born on 17th March, 1753. He entered the Army as Ensign in the Coldstream Guards in the seventeenth year of his age, and at the age of twenty, received a Captain's commission in the 29th Foot. Having been ordered to Canada, his lordship arrived at Quebec on the 6th May, 1776, and had the honor to command the detachment which relieved that city, then besieged by the Americans. On accompanying the expedition under Gen. Burgoyne, Lord Petersham was appointed to the Grenadier company, which he commanded at the battle of Hubbardton, Vt., on the 7th July, 1777. A few days after, he was appointed supernumerary Aid-de-Camp to Gen. Burgoyne, and in that capacity served in the engagements of the 19th of September, and 7th of October, and attended the funeral of Brig. Gen. Frazer, who was killed on the last menuoned day. On the 17th of October his lordship was one of the officers that attended Gen. Burgoyne on occasion of his surrender as prisoner of war to Major General Gates, after which, being selected to carry General B.'s despatches to London, he went to Albany, thence to New York, and embarked for England where he exchanged into the 3rd Foot Guards, whereby he attained the rank of Colonel in the Army, 16th January, 1778. He succeeded to the title of Earl of Harrington on the death of his father, 1st April, 1779; on the 23rd May following he married Jane, daughter of Sir John Fleming, Bart., and on the 1st June was examined before the Committee of the House of Commons on Burgoyne's expedition. In 1780, he was appointed Lieut. Colonel of the 85th Foot, and then served two years in the Weft Indies. In 1782 he received the brevet rank of Colonel, and became Colonel of the 65th Foot in March 1783. He was appointed to the command of the 29th regiment in January 1788, and of the 1st regiment of Life Guards on the 5th December, 1792; was advanced to the rank of Major General the following year, and of Lieut. General in 1798, after which his lordshiip was sometime employed on the staff in Great Britain and served also in Ireland. Having attained the rank of General in the Army; been Governor and Constable of Windsor Caftle, and having been honored with the Grand Crofs of the Bath, his lordship died on the 5th Sept., 1829, in the 67th year of his age.


Baron Salans.


ALEXANDER Salans entered the 9th regiment as Ensign 2nd September, 1776. He returned to England after this campaign, and in 1780 was appointed Captain in the 85th, a newly raised regiment, of which Lord Harrington (supra, p. 76) was Colonel. This corps was dslbanded in 1783, when Baron Salans's name disappears from the army list.


Colonel Wilkinson.


JAMES Wilkinson was born in Maryland, in 1757, and at the age of 17, entered the Medical School of Philadelphia. After passing through the requisite studies he returned to his native place to practice his profession. On the breaking out of the Revolution, he joined, as a Volunteer, Col. Thompson's company of Rifles, then at the camp before Boston, and in September, 1775, was commissioned Captain in Read's New Hampfhire regiment. He joined this corps in 1776, but was soon after ordered to Canada, and joined General Arnold at Lachine, 22nd May of that year, but was obliged to quit that Province with the remains of the American army, and return to Ticonderoga, where he was appointed Major of Brigade. In consequence of an attack of fever, he had to be removed to Albany, and in January, 1777, was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel in a newly raised regiment, commanded by Colonel Gueft, but was shortly after transferred to Hardey's regiment, and proceeded to Maryland to recruit. On General Gates being appointed to the command of the Northern army. Lieutenant Colonel Wilkinson left Hartley's regiment, and joined Gen. Gates's stafF as Adjutant General, in which capacity he made the campaign of 1777. On the furrender of Burgoyne, Wilkinson was \ent with Gates's despatches to Congress, and recommended for promotion; but his progress was slow. He had halted on the way to pay his respects to Mifs Biddle, to whom he was attached. When it was afterwards moved in Congress to present the messenger with a fword, it was proposed by way of amendment, that he should be presented with a pair of golden spurs. He, however, received the brevet of Brigadier General, 6th of November, 1777, and returned to the North. In January, 1778, he was appointed Secretary of the Board of War, and proceeded in February to Pennsylvania. Here he quarrelled with and challenged Gates, in consequence of some misunderstanding, but the interference of friends prevented a hostile meeting. General Wilkinson's promotion having given offence to a number of Colonels in the Continental Army, who felt slighted thereby, he threw up his brevet on the 3rd, and his Secretaryship on the 28th March, 1778; the latter in consequence of Gates being President of the Board. The dominant influence of that officer, and the feuds and intrigues in Congress and in the army, left him unemployed until the 29th July, 1779, when he received the appointment of Clothier General to the forces. After the peace. General Wilkinson turned his attention to the Western country, and in February, 1784, fettled at Lexington, Ky., as agent of a commercial company in Philadelphia. He soon engaged in politics, and in 1786 was elected member of the Convention preparatory to the entrance of that territory into the Union. Hitherto no trade had been permitted between the Western people and New Orleans, but General Wilkinfon conceived the idea of eftablishing a regular trade thither, and accordingly, in 1787 sent a cargo of tobacco, flour, butter and bacon down the Mississippi, which he shortly followed, and by his personal influence, caused the removal of those commercial barriers which had, up to that time, closed that market to the Western trade. The troubles with the Indians now absorbed public attention, and measures became neceflary for the proteflion of the fron- tier. In 1791 an expedition against the Wabash Indians was, therefore, organized, of which Wilkinson was chosen Colonel. His services on this occasion commended him to the Federal Government, and on 7th November of that year, he was appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the 2nd regiment of Infantry, and on 5th March, 1792, Brigadier General. He commanded the right wing of Wayne's army at the famous battle of the Maumee, 20th August, 1794, and distinguished himself on that occasion. The Treaty of Greenville was shortly after concluded, and put an end to the Indian wars on the Ohio. General Wilkinson took advantage of this treaty to purchase, in company with others, a large traft of land extending from the Little to the Great Miami, on part of which the town of Dayton, O., now stands. In December, 1796, he became General in Chief of the army, with his head quarters at Pittsburg; visited Detroit and Michilimakinac in 1797, and in 1798, on the organization of the Territory of Mississippi, established his headquarters at Natchez, where he erected Fort Adams, so called after the Prefident then in office. In the year following (1799) he was called to New York to aid the government with his advice in the then critical state of our foreign relations, but after his returning to Natchez, was engaged in 1801 in negotiations with the Indian tribes south of Tennessee, and in determining the boundary between the Whites and the Chickafaws, Choftaws, &c. It was while thus employed that he was nominated one of the Commissioners for receiving possession of Louifiana. He executed that commission December 20th, 1803, and returned to New York in 1 804, after having been honored with a public dinner. In 1805, he was appointed Governor of the Territory of Louisiana, now comprising the States of Arkansas, Missouri, &c. He reached St. Louis, the seat of the territorial government, in June, and administered the affairs of the territory until the close of 1806. He was next employed in protesting the south-western frontier from invasion by the Spaniards, who had assembled a large body of troops on the eastern boundary of Texas. On concluding that business, and making the requisite arrangements with the Spanish authorities, he returned to New Orleans, where he was soon actively engaged in breaking up the plans and project of Aaron Burr. General Wilkinson's activity on that occasion, drew down on him the enmity of Burr's friends, and as a consequence, in December, 1 806, an investigation into his official conduct. This resulted in his favor, and the report having been approved.  General Wilkonson was ordered (1808) to return to New Orleans to provide for the public defence, but having a special mission to the Havana, he did not reach Louisiana until 19th April, 1809. He was superseded in his command in December following, and recalled to Washington, which he reached in April, 1810. Another investigation into his conduct followed, and in July, 1811, he was tried by court martial on charges of having received bribes from, or having been in the pay of Spain, and for having connived at the designs of Burr, &c. This trial occupied much time and confiderable public attention. It terminated at length, in December, by a verdift of not guilty, which was approved by the President 14th February, 1812, and General Wilkinfon was once more ordered back to New Orleans, to resume his command. He reached that city on the 8th June; war with England was declared on the 18th, and he was commissioned Brevet Major General l0th July following, and Major General 2nd March, 1813. In April, 1813, he reduced Mobile and fortified Mobile Point, afterwards called Fort Bowyer. He then returned to New Orleans, and in May was removed from the South and ordered to take command of the army on the Northern frontier.


The General did not win many laurels on that frontier, and at the close of the campaign, broken in health, he asked to be transferred to some other command. In February, 1814, the Secretary at War reported to the President various charges against him, and recommended that he be superseded, and that a court of inquiry examine into his conduct. He was accordingly ordered to reside either at Philadelphia, Baltimore or Annapolis, and meanwhile to consider himself under arrest. Towards the close of June he arrived at the city of Washington, then agitated by the approach of the British under Gen. Ross. Thereupon General Wilkinson offered to take command of the militia and save the city, if his arrest were suspended and his sword temporarily restored. The administration took no notice of this offer, and he left the city on the 20th August, and retired to Maryland. He renewed his offer in September, but with no better success. It was decided to bring him to trial. A court martial accordingly assembled at Troy in January, 1815, which terminated its labors March 21, by the honorable acquittal of the accused on all and each of the charges the government had brought against him.



1 According to Allen's Biographical Dictionary, General Wilkinson married about this time a Miss Trudeau, aged  26 years.



Peace having been concluded, Congrefs passed an act (May 1815) to reduce the army. Upwards of eighteen hundred officers were discharged. General Wilkinfon was the principal one of these, notwithstanding his forty years in the public service, and his recent honorable acquittal by the general court martial. He thereupon retired to Germantown. Pa., where he employed himself in the compilation of his Memoirs, which were published in 1816, in 3 vols. 8vo. with an Atlas. In the beginning of that year, the General Assembly of his native state passed the following Joint Resolution No. 47, Dec. Session, 1815.


By the General Assembly of Maryland.


Passed Jan. 26. 1816. In favor of James Wilkinson.


WHEREAS it appears to this General Assembly that Wilkinson, an Officer of the Revolutionary In favor of War, and who served to its termination, did not receive the Commutation money of five years pay, in lieu of halfpay for life, promised to the officers and soldiers who continued in

service to the end of the war : Therefore

Resolved, That the Treasurer of the Western Shore, be and he is hereby authorized and direfted to pay to the faid James Wilkinfon, yearly, in quarterly payments, during life, the halfpay of a Colonel of Dragoons, as remuneration for services rendered his country in the revolutionary struggle for liberty. (See vol. Laws, Dec. Session, 1815, p. 224.)


He subsequendy went to Mexico, and in August, 1825, obtained from the government of that country a grant of land in Texas. He derived no benefit, however, from that grant, for he was seized soon after, with an attack of diarrhea, and died near the city of Mexico, on the 28th December, 1825, aged 68 years. His body was brought to the house of Mr. Poinsett, the American minister, and his interment took place on the evening of the 30th, in the parish of St. Miguel. As an old soldier of the Revolution, every effort was made to procure for him military honors, but these were peremptorily denied, on the plea that such honors were not even granted to Mexicans. He was followed to the grave by the most distinguished military and civil officers, and by all the respectable foreigners of the city. "Public opinion," says Niles, in his Weekly Register, "has long been much divided as to the character of the deceased. We have thought that he was a man more sinned against than finning; " though some parts of his conduct rather appeared inexplicable. Let his faults be buried with him, and the fact that he was a gallant Soldier of the Revolution overfshadow his memory, and endear the recollection of all who reap the fruits of the exertions of those who gave themselves up to their country when men's souls were tried."


Reminiscences of Gen. Wilkinson by James F. Watson, Esq.


Germantown, Sept. 12, 1860. Dr. E. B. O'Callaghan :


Dear Sir — Our mutual friend, E. Armstrong, has desired me to write to you of my recollections of General James Wilkinfon. I am happy to reply, and to manifest my respect, personally, for yourself.


General Wilkinson was an elegant gentleman in person and manners. He was of medium size, probably 5 feet 8 or 9 inches. I knew him first in years 1800 to 1804. He dwelt in the house next door to me, in the Six Buildings, in Wafhington city. He was sumptuous and hospitable in his living, not very nicely balancing his means and ends. He appeared much abroad with his Aid, both in full uniform, and generally on horseback. His array was splendid, he having gold stirrups and spurs, and gold leopard claws to his leopard saddle-cloth. The buttons of his clothing were also gold. He had then two sons at college. One or both of them married and settled at Natchez. The elder son was tall and handsome. It seems to me as if one of them got in a duel there.

I once saw Gen. Wilkinson walking Spruce street in Philadelphia, going, as I supposed, to a dinner; he in full uniform, having his hair toupeed and powdered, and carrying his chapeau under his arm, and caring for no one's eyes or remarks. That should have been about the year 1800. It was before hacks, &c.


General Wilkinson's first wife was Msfs Biddle of Philadelphia, sister of Clement Biddle, very long known as a very active and efficient agent for merchants and captains operating at the custom house. He acquired money, and lived to 80 years of age. His second wife was a Creole of New Orleans. About the years 1804-5, I used to see her and her sister very often. They were very handsome; not deemed affluent; lived on a Plantation above New Orleans. They always came to the city in a volante, driving their pair of Andalusian horses themfelves.


General Wilkinson first introduced the cropping of hair in the army. Colonel Butler could not endure to lose his long-cherished cue. He resisted. It created great feuds, and much divided officers, so that several duels occurred. He first introduced msfical instruments, and their cost was much disputed at first by the department.


In the year 1814 I came to dwell at Germantown, as cashier of the newly founded bank. In two or three years after, General Wilkinson came to be my near neighbor at Riter's Tavern, where he purposed to board and write his three volumes of Memoirs. It was a long two-storied stone house, with a high attic, extending the length of the whole house, and was well lined with unpainted cedar boards. It was used as a masons' lodge. There he would pace to and fro, and dictate his composition to his amanuensis, seemingly an Englishman. I felt surprise at such a mode of bookmaking. I was allowed to be present, when I chose. The General made no shew abroad, while there, and did not desire to visit, as I think. My house being near, and informal, he seemed to like to relax by calling in, and talking mostly with Mrs. Watson. She admired him for his elegance and proprieties of manner. See what I have said of him and his Memoirs in appendix to my Annuls of Philadelphia.


Sir Francis Clark.


SIR Francis Carr Clerke, Bart., of Hitcham, Buckingham county, England, was born 24th October, 1 748, and succeeded to the Baronetcy in 1769. He entered the army as Ensign in the 3rd regiment of Foot Guards, on the 3rd Jan. 1770, and attained the rank of Lieutenant and Captain on 26th July, 1775. He accompanied General Burgoyne in the capacity of Aid-de-camp , was severely wounded on the 8th, and died on the 13th October, 1777. The following circumstances attending his death are related in General Wilkinfon's Memoirs, 1, 269, note:


"When I returned to headquarters from the field of battle, I found Sir Francis Clark reposing on General Gates's bed, and those gentlemen engaged in a warm dispute, on the merits of the revolution, Sir Francis admitting that every procedure on our part, short of the declaration of independence was warranted by the conduct of the Britifli administration; that he had on this ground vindicated us in public and private, but that the fudden aft of severance, convinced him the contest had originated in a premeditated view 10 independence, into which the colonies had been cheated by the puritans of New England; and that he, of consequence, had changed his opinion, and taken part against us. On the other hand. Gates contended, that the idea of disunion had never entered into the head of any American, until the menaces of the parliament, the repeated oppressive acts of the British government, and the manifest vindictive resentment of the sovereign, left the colonists no alternative between abject vassalage and self-governmcnt.


"The old General became quite incensed, and calling me out of the room, asked me if I had ever heard so impudent a son of a b — h. Sir  Francis, who was I think a member of parliament, appeared to be an impetuous, high-minded, frank, fearless fellow, for suddenly changing the conversation, he inquired of me, whether our surgeons were good for anything, as he did not like the direction of his wound, and was desirous to know whether it was mortal or not. The following extract of a letter from Doctor Hayes to General Burgoyne, dated the 9th October, describes Sir Francis's particular case: 'I have seen Sir Francis Clark, and am sorry to inform you that I have some unfavorable opinion of his case. The ball entered his right flank, struck the two last of the false ribs, penetrated the cavity of the abdomen, and seems to run towards the spine; a tension of his belly, and involuntary discharges of urine are bad symptoms. He has been attended with great care and tenderness; I stay by him this night, and shall not omit any attention for his recovery. Major Ackland is wounded in the thick part of both legs. The left seems to have the bone touched, but of no consequence.' Sir Francis died I think the 13th, and the day before  questioned Dr. Townsend, who attended him, as to the probable issue of the wound. The Doctor felt a reluctance in announcing his doom; he observed it, and remarked, 'Doctor, why do you pause? Do you think I am afraid to die?' The Doctor then advised him, as an act of prudence, to arrange his private affairs. 'Thank you, Doctor,' replied he, 'I underftand you; as to my private affairs, my father settled them for me, and I have only a few legacies to bequeath.' Among them he gave twenty guineas to the matron of our hospital, who had paid particular attention to him."




THIS document is in the possession J. Wingate Thornton, Esq., of Boston, Mass., and is signed by Gen. Burgoyne in a broken and tremulous hand, and one hundred and eighty-eight other officers.


" We, whose names are hereunto subscribed, being under the restrictions of the convention made on the sixteenth of October last, between Lieutenant General Burgoyne and Major General Gates, do promise and engage, on our word and honor, and in the faith of gentlemen, to remain in the quarters assigned us for our residence in Cambridge, Watertown, Medford, and Charlestown, in the State of Massachusetts Bay, and at no time to exceed or pass the following limits, viz. Swan's shop at Charlestown Neck, the Cambridge road up to the crossway between Mr. Codman's house and Fort No, 3; the said crossway out to the road by Mr. Inman's house, taking in the Hospital Barracks; from thence a straight line to Cambridge bridge; from thence to the north bank of Charles river to Watertown; from thence the Bofson road as far as the crotch of the way at Anger's corner; from Watertown bridge up the road to the northwest corner of Mr. Remington's house, and from Learned's Tavern the Cambridge road on to the common to the Menotomy road, up said road to Cooper's Tavern, taking in the Menotomy pond; but not to pass the beach on the south, west, or north sides thereof; from Cooper's Tavern down to the east end of Benj'n Tuft's houfe in Medford, and from Medford Bridge the Boston road to Swan's shop, the first-mentioned bounds. The intermediate roads are within the parole, and the backyards of the respective quarters to the distance of eighty yards from them, during our continuance in this State, or until the Continental General commanding in this State, His Excellency General Washington, or the Congress of the United States, shall order otherwise; and that we will not directly or indirectly give any intelligence whatsoever to the enemies of the United States, or do or say anything in opposition to or in prejudice of the measures and proceedings of any Congress for the said States during our continuance here as aforesaid, or until we are duly exchanged or discharged; and that we will at all times duly observe and obey the rules and regulations already established for the government of the troops in quarters.


Given under our hands at Cambridge, in the State of Massachusetts Bay, this thirteenth day of December, in the year of our Lord 1777.




Lieutenant General. J. Burgoyne.

Major General. W. Phillips.

Brigadier General. James Hamilton

Lieutenant Colonels:

John Lind, Nicholas Sutherland, John Anstruther,



Balcarres, G. Forbes, George Forster, William Agnewe, Henry Harnage, P. Irving, John Holmes, Jun.



Thomas Hosmer, Ellis Walker, William Cotton, J. W. Heman, Noah Simpson, Nich's Ailward Vigors, John Carter, James Sheldon, W. Lindsay, Neill MacLean, Alexander Baillie, George Swettenham, J. Rollinson, Francis Wemyss, Robert W. Winchester, William Maxwell, Paul Banks, James Lovell, J. Farmar, George Petrie, Thomas Kirkman, George Brodie, Stephen Strangway, R. Master, H.Pilmor, William Fergussone, George Coote, A. Jameson, Rd. England, J. D. Alcock, Henry Marr, Thomas Blomefield, George Marlay, Erie Hawker, Alexander Campbell, John Shrimpton, H. Sotheron, Thomas Anburey. Lieutefiatits. William Cox, Dan' Davids, Jas. Hadden, James Dunbar, William P. Smith, William Houghton, William Collier, H. T. Thomion, Bright Nodder, Robert Stordy, James Batterfby, W. Houghton, Edward T. Jones, Hamilton Maxwell, W. Digby, Charles Williams, Sewell Maunfell, William Mure, Thomas Steel, Napier, Anson Nutt, Archibald Fife, George Rawdon, John M'Neill, James Murray, George Vincent, James Kimmis, W. Prince, Joseph Stevely, S. Rimington, Geo. H. Reade, J. Steele, John Gafkell, Richard Norman, W. R. Gilbert, Richard Croft, Robert Dobson, Wm. Charlton, Clifton Wheat, Charles Torriano, W. Fetherston, John Hepburne, George Edward Shlagel, William Douglas, B. Innes, Robert Burnet, John Blackwood, John Dalgleish, Torphichen, Wellon Alcock, Richard Brown, R. Steele, Charles Williams, William Doyle, Thomas Bibby, George Coffer, Charles Johnfton, Charles Earle, John Fergutfone, W. Campbell, Thomas Reed, Thomas Storey, T. Poe, Min. Hobart, Henry Baldwin, A. French, Bernard G. Ward, John Rotton, Abm. Banbury, J. Jones, Arthur Blackall, William Wilkinfon, Connolly Coane, Lowther Mathews, Gonvill Bromhead.



Henry May, W. Hoey, Thomas Dcane, Thomas Orchard, James Moon, Robert Grier, Cooper,

Richard Bateman, E. F. Mcrida, William Noble, M. Burroughs, G. Stephens, John Percey, Richard James, H. Blacker, George Hervey, James Power, John Grattan, Daniel Gwynne, St. Leger Bevill, Ouin John Freeman.



G. Wylde, William Burke, M. Cahili, W. Pemberton, Samuel Sone, Leonard Dobbin, Alexander Moodie.


Surgeons' Mates:

Alexander Melville, William Brown, A. B. Carroll, Charles Watson, Colin MacLasty, Joseph Alder.



Isaac Fielding, J. Dalladine. Deputy Adjt. General. Rt. Kingston.



R'd Montague Money, Andrew Brown, Charles Mongan, R. Higinbothom, Edward Brudenell,



William Paxton, Jno. Holmes


Commissary General:

Jonathan Clarke.


Assistant Commissaries.

J. Rousseau, Andrew Foster, L. Cromanteau, Nathaniel Collyer. John Powell,


Assistant Com. of Beer:

John M'Kenzie, dep. do.


Assistant Quartermaster:

George Vallancey.


Dep. paymaster general.

David Geddes.


Acting Physician:

Vincent Wood.


Mates of Gen. Hospital

Richard Woodthorp, John Park.



Charles Green, R. R. Wilford,

Wagonmaster General:

Robert Hoakefly, P. O'Donnel, dep. do., Philip Skene, a poor follower of the British army. [These words are in his own handwriting.]


[These names are not given in the order in which they appear on original record, but have been carefully collated with it, and are correct as far as we are able to decypher them with the aid of the Army list.]




Riedesel, Maj. General.

J. W. Specht, Brig. Gen.

W. R. De Gall, do.

Lentz, Lieut. Colonel.



Von Lucke, Von Mengen, Ehrcnkrook, Von Passern, H. U. Cleve Brig. Maj.



J. Willoe, de Schlagenteussel, de Lohneysen, C. A. Alers, J. G. P. Arend, Morgenstern, Bartling, Harbord, Girsewald, Lutzow, Schlagenteussel, Jaeger, C. L. Schottelius, F. de Germann, Scheel, Schaften, Paufch, Trott.



Borneman, Ulig, Trott, Rudolphi, De Mayer, C. von Muzell, G. S. Wintersmitz, Helmeke, Curt von Hefler, Meyer, Counradj, Von Dobeneck, Peterson, Modrach, Von Unger, Feichel, Reinking, W. Hoyer, Morgenstern, Burgsdorff, Brands, Meijern, Cramm, J. Meyer, August Papet, Sen., Milkau, Oldekop, D'Anniers, J. F. J. Kettner, A. H. Du Roi, Unger, P. S. Cruse, J. F. Pfluger, J. G. H. Gladen, G. F. Fricke, C. F. Rohr, P. W. L. Rhenius, M. von Butler, Von Lindau,

Von Eschwege, Von Bifchaufen, Von Trott, Siebert, Graf von Pukler, Sartorius,


Quarter Master:

F. V. Geyling, W. Dusais, C. D. Spangenberg.



Bandel, Erich, Bode, Meibom, Bernewitz, Ulmenstein. E. Grimpe, Von Richtersleben, Von Weyhers, Heerwagen,


Adjt. Chaplains.

Toegel, Milius, Kohle, Theobald.



Schrader, Pralle, Baufe, J. H. Kunze,


D. Adjt. Gen:




A. Edmonstone, Cleve,


Quarter Master General:

H. D. Gerlach





Serjt. Major:

t. T. Heildebach





A. H. Bahr.


[These names have been compared with the original, kindly placed in our hands by Mr. Thornton for the purpofe; and with those on another parole, given when the prisoners were marched to Virginia, also in the possession of Mr. Thornton. They will be found in some case to differ slightly in orthography from the names on p. 155, et seq. We have followed the original.]




AT the time of our revolutionary contest, the fortification at Fort Edward was so dilapidated that it was worthless, and was seldom occupied by any of the troops that were stationed there. And the three block-houses or outposts of the fort, in opposite directions upon the surrounding heights, were in the same condition. In addition to these, the only structures there at that time were three dwelling houses, the history and situations of which were briefly as follows :


The widow Campbell house, from which Jane McCrea, Mrs. Campbell and a servant boy living with her, named Norman Morrison, were taken by Indians from Burgoyne's. camp, was some 16 feet by 20 in size, built of round logs, with a door on its east side only, an old fashioned fire place without jambs at its north end, on one side of which were ladder-like stairs leading to a loft over-head, and rather south of the centre of the floor, a trap door, opening into an unwalled cellar-hole underneath. This building was subsequently the residence of Sheriff Peter B. Tierce, who married a grand-daughter of Mrs. C.'s. It was demolished some fifty years ago. It flood in what is now the garden of Dr. Norton, some ten rods southwest of the brick house in which the doctor resides, and was thus equidistant between and about eight rods from the road on one side and the river on the other, and some sixty rods north of the fort and one hundred and fifty south of the tree and spring where it is currently but I think erroneoudy reported Miss McCrea was murdered, the spot where that atrocity occurred, being some thirty-five rods east, at the summit of the hill where the old military road to Fort Ann and Fort George ascended the hill. Of this I became assured, upon casting over all the evidence I could obtain when investigating this subject fourteen years since, the testimony of Esq. Samuel B. Cook, an intelligent man who came to reside here in 1788, and accompanied me over the grounds, being most full, explicit and strongly corroborated by facts derived from several other sources.


The other two were framed buildings, which are still standing. When the second fort at this place was erected by Gen. Lyman's army in 1755, feveral buildings were reared within it, for officers' quarters, barracks, ftorehoufes and workftiops. After the French war, Patrick Smyth was superintendent of the public property here, and Canada being now conquered, it was supposed there would never be any further use for this fortification. It was therefore neglected and went to ruin, and the fuperin- tendant and his brother. Dr. James Smyth, took down the two best buildings in the fort and reerected them where they now stand, for their own residences. That of the Dr. S. was opened as an inn, and in 1788 he sold it to Ezekiel Baldwin, who continued for a long time to occupy it in the same manner. This house has now for a long time been out of repair and unoccupied. It is situated between the village street and the canal, somewhat south of the fort and north of Fort Edward creek.


The third building, in which Patrick Smyth resided, is below this, at the south end of the village, a little below where the road from Argyle comes into the river road. It is now modernized in its appearance, with an observatory on its top, and painted white, and is the residence of Col. Abraham Fort. When Charlotte (now Washington) county was set off from Albany, in 1773, Smyth was appointed the county clerk, and the courts were held in this house, Wm. Duer and Philip Schuyler being the presiding judges at the six terms which were held before the outbreak of the revolution caused their suspension. The troops which were stationed at this place in the latter years of the war, to guard the frontier against incursions from Canada, quartered themselves in this house, and Gen. Stark's regiment, when on this service, fortified it by surrounding it with palisades. The Smyths being loyalists, withdrew to Canada, felling this house to Adiel Sherwood. A son of Patrick Smyth, born here, named Charles, was a lawyer, resident in Albany, and for a time clerk of the supreme court. He afterwards resided and died on an island he owned on the Canada side of Lake Ontario. Sherwood opened this house as a tavern, and thereupon the county courts, which had been recommenced at New Perth (now Salem) meeting house — the only framed building then in the county, in addition to these two — came to be held alternately there and in this house again until 1797.


This building was formerly designated as the old Yellow house. I pre- fumc it was repainted of this color, by Sherwood, for I have the impression that both the Smyth houses were originally red, though I am unable to find any memorandum stating this fact. That this is the house that was occupied by Gen. Burgoyne and his staff, whilst the Dr. Smyth house was at the same time thronged with the families which abode there temporarily for protection from his Indians, fully appears from numerous statements which I have gathered.


Robert Blake of Eall Greenwich (now deceased) says: "I was a boy sixteen years old, when my father's family went to Burgoyne's camp to take protection. Whilst there, we resided with an uncle of mine, Wm. Bell, whose house was a half mile north of the village. The widow Campbell, was living at my uncle's temporarily, at the same time. She used to go down from my uncle's to the camp, every day, to visit her cousin Gen. Frazer, as she termed him, who, with the other officers, had their quarters at Smith's house, as it was called. This was a large house, below the fort, and across the brook from the fort. It was afterwards surrounded by pickets. It belonged to Dr. Smith and his brother. Their Christian names I don't remember. Mrs. Campbell, or McNeil as she should be called, for McNeil was her last husband, was talking a great deal at that time, about houses that belonged to her in New York city. Whether she really had any houses there, or was really a cousin to Gen. Frazer I don't know. But every day, when she returned from her visit to the camp, she was telling how she was going to give the use of such a house to this officer, and such a house to that, for their quarters, on their arrival in New York — for that they would reach New York was a fixed fact at that time." — Letter from Dr. Afa Fitch.




SIMON Frazer was the youngest son, it is said, of Hugh Frazer of Balnain. His mother was daughter of the Frazer of Forgers. So little is known of his early history, that we can with difficulty trace him beyond the year 1761. However, we are inclined to the opinion that he served in one of the Scotch regiments or companies in the pay of Holland previous to the breaking out of the French war. We find a Simon Frazer commissioned a Lieutenant in the 60th Royal Americans on the organization of that regiment in 1756, who was transferred on 5th January, 1757, to Frazer's Highlanders. With this regiment he served in the expedition against Louisbourg; obtained his company 22nd April, 1759, and accompanied Gen. Wolfe to Quebec. On the 15th March, I761 , he received the brevet rank of Major, and was commissioned Major of the 24th Foot, 8th February, i 762. He was garrisoned for a few years at Gibraltar, whence his regiment went to Ireland. On 14th July, 1768, Major Frazer was appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the 24th, which corps was ordered to Canada in 1776, and formed part of the forces commanded by Gen. Burgoyne, whom Lt. Col. Frazer accompanied with the rank of Brigadier General, on the present expedition. His services therein are matters of public history. He closed an honourable career on the field of battle on the 7th of Oftober, 1777. The circumstances attending his death are thus narrated by Mde. Riedesel:


" General Frazer, and I believe Generals Burgoyne and Phillips, were to dine with me on that day. I remarked much movement in the camp. My hufband told me that it was a mere reconnoissance; and as this was frequent, I was not much alarmed at it. On my way homeward, I met a number of Indians armed with guns, and clad in their war dresses. Having asked them where they were going, they replied, 'War, war;' by which they meant that they were about to fight. This made me very uneasy, and I had scarcely got home, before J heard reports of guns; and soon the fire became brisker, till at last the noise grew dreadful, upon which I was more dead than alive. About three o'clock in the afternoon, instead of guests whom I had expected to dine with me, I saw one of them, poor General Frazer, brought upon a hand-barrow, mortally wounded. The table, which was already prepared for dinner, was immediately removed, and a bed placed in its stead for the General. I sat terrified and trembling in a corner. The noise grew more alarming, and I was in a continual agony and tremour, while thinking that my husband, might soon also be brought in, wounded like General Frazer. That poor general said to the surgeon, 'Tell me the 'truth, is there no hope?' His wound was exactly like that of Major Harnagc; the ball had passed through his body, but unhappily for the General, he had that morning eaten a full breakfast, by which the stomach ' was distended, and the ball, as the surgeon remarked, passed directly through it. I heard often amidst his groans, such words as these, 'O bad ambition! poor General Burgoyne! poor Misress Fraze.' Prayers were read, after which he desired that General Burgoyne should be requested to have him buried on the next day, at 6 o'clock in the ' evening, on a hill where a breastwork had been cosftruftcd. He sent me several messages to beg my pardon for the trouble he thought he gave me. About 3 o'clock, I was informed that he could not live much longer, and as I did not wish to be present at his last struggle, I wrapped my children in blankets, and retired into the entrance hall. At 8 ' o'clock in the morning he expired.


'After he had been wafhcd, he was wrapped in a sheet, and laid out. We then returned into the room, and had this melancholy spectacle  before us the whole day. Many officers of my acquaintance were brought in wounded, and the cannonade continued. There was some talk of retreating, but I faw no indications of it. About 4 o'clock in the afternoon, I saw the house which had been built for me, in flames, from which I inferred that the enemy was near. We were informed that Gen. Burgoyne intended to comply with General Frazer's last request, and to have him buried at 6 o'clock, in the place which he had designated. This occasioned an uselefs delay, and contributed to our military misfortunes. At 6 o'clock, the corpse was removed, and we saw all the generals with their retinues, on the hill, assisting at the funeral ceremony. The English chaplain, Mr. Brudenel, officiated. Cannon-balls flew around and above the assembled mourners. General Gates protested afterwards, that had he known what was going on, he would have stopped the fire immediately. Many cannon balls flew close by me, but my whole attention was engaged by the funeral scene, where I saw my husband exposed to imminent danger. This, indeed, was not a moment to be apprehensive for my own safety.'


General Burgoyne has described this scene with his usual felicity of expression and eloquence, and in a much more graphical style than our authoress. We beg leave to copy the following passage:


"The incessant cannonade during the solemnity; the steady attitude and unaltered voice with which the chaplain officiated, though frequently covered with dust, which the shot threw up on all sides of him; the mute but expressive mixture of sensibiiity and indignation, upon every  countenance; these objects will remain to the last of life upon the mind of every man who was present. The growing duskiness added to the scenery, and the whole marked a character of that juncture that would make one of the finest subjects for the pencil of a master, that the field ever exhibited. To the canvas, and to the faithful page of a more important historian, gallant friend, I consign thy memory. There may thy talents, thy manly virtues, their progress and their period, find due distinction; and long may they survive; long after the frail record of my pen shall be forgotten!" — State of the Expedition from Canadn, &c. &c. p. 126,




DAVID Jones was the lover of the unfortunate Miss McCrea, His older brother Daniel married, previous to the war, and was living north of Sandy-hill, I presume on lot 55, Kingsbury, of which the county records show him to have been the owner. This is three miles north of Sandy-hill, in the neighborhood called the Pine Plains in Burgoyne's expedition, now Moss street. Peters's corps, in which Daniel and David Jones were commissioned officers, was mostly composed of men from the loyalist families in this county, who had repaired to Canada when this expedition was organizing. As the party of Indians was sent for Miss McCrea when the army, in its advance, encamped at the Pine Plains, it appears altogether probable that it was mutually understood that she should come to this place and temporarily stay at the house and with the family of Daniel Jones; and thus there was less temerity in this arrangement than has currently been supposed. Who could have anticipated there was any particular danger in employing a company of friendly Indians to take a horse to her and escort her back with them, by day, three or four miles, transferring her from his mother's to his brother's house ?


When the family withdrew to Canada, Daniel located himself at Brockville, where he engaged in business actively, extensively and successfully. His oldesl son was sent to England to complete his education, but was a profligate spendthrift who came to nothing. His two other sons, by a second wife, Daniel and David, were lawyers in Brockville, and the latter was recently and perhaps is still the county clerk there, the former being deceased. After their father's death, some thirty or forty years since, one of these sons came to Sandy-hill to recover something for the lands from which his father, he said, had been forcibly driven. His advent there, on such an errand, produced a considerable excitement; one or more articles appeared in the village newspaper, sarcastically alluding to his family's claims upon this country; and he found the temper of the community such that he was impelled to withdraw and abandon the business. Though his family was probably legally entitled, in our courts, to the compensation he sought, there is no doubt they had long since received from the British government, a fair equivalent for the losses they had suftained.


The widow Jones and her sons are reported to have come here from New Jersey, from whence also came the McCreas, whose father was a Presbyterian clergyman in that state. The widow Jones's house stood on the west or Saratoga side of the river, over a half mile below the old fort, nearly on the spot where a cream colored house now stands, some twenty rods below the stone house of Halsey Rogers. At this place was the principal ferry on the river, which continued to be known as the Jones Ferry many years after the family had left. Philander Doty succeeded the widow Jones, and the house was defsroyed at the time of Carleton's descent hither, in the autumn of 1780. The following statements from Jacob Bitely, deceased, merit to be copied, in this connexion.


"Father moved to this place from Skenesboro, in the spring of 1779, when I was 17 years old. Though the land there suited him well enough, he did not feel we should be safe in residing there. We should be better guarded, he said, to be in the rear of Fort Edward. So he came down here, and bought out a rank tory on the opposite (Saratoga) side of the river, named Tuttle, father of John and Wm. Tuttle. The farm was all cleared up and under cultivation. It lay on Snoot kill,  and our house stood where the white house south of the mouth of Snoot kill now stands. Other tories about here also sold out and went to Canada about the same time with Tuttle; for they now began to despair of the king's conquering this country, and the whigs were getting to feel in such  high fpirits, they could not bear to remain in the neighborhood. The widow Jones and her sons sold their place to Philander Doty. Their ferryman, who set Jane McCrea across the river, the morning of the day she was murdered, remained and continued to do the ferrying several years after we came here. I have the most perfect recollection of hearing him state these things, viz: That Miss McCrea left her brother John's house and went up to the widow Jones's, and staid there over night [several days and nights, other testimony authentically establishes], and he, the ferryman, set her over the river, the next morning, for her to go to her aunt Campbell's. The ferryman termed Mrs. Campbell Miss McCrea's aunt. Whether she was so, or not, I do not know. The ferryman also described Miss McCrea as being dressed up in her best suit of clothes, when he set her across the river that morning; and described to me her wedding cap, as he termed it. What its material or fabrication was, I do not remember, but I suppose it was very nice for those  days, the ferryman having seemed to notice it so particularly. She had put on these fine clothes at Mrs. Jones's, that morning. I do not rccollect of the ferryman's telling whether there was a black woman accompanying Miss McCrea at that time. * * * *


"Malloy, Geo. Campbell, and another Campbell, whose first name I cannot recall, with some others around here of less note, also sold out their possessions at the same time with the Joneses, and moved ofF to Canada. But it seems they could not forget their happy homes of former years, and such were their feehngs of hatred and malevolence towards the whigs, that it added gall to their cup to think that these, their bitter enemies, were living in quiet comfort, in their old residences. They therefore resolved to destroy what they could not enjoy. A large company of these refugees, under the lead of the Tuttles and Geo. Campbell, it was always said and believed, came down from Canada as volunteers in Carleton's force, for the purpose of destroying our property and burning our houses. That year continues to be designated in this quarter, as 'the year of the great burning'" — Letter from Dr. Asa Fitch.





A MEDAL was struck by order of Congress, two inches in diameter, in commemoration of the success of the American arms over this formidable expedition. On one side is the bust of Gen. Gates, with the Latin inscription, horatio gates duci strenuo comitia Americana; on the reverse, Burgoyne is represented in the attitude of delivering up his sword, and in the background, on either side of them, are seen the two armies of Britain and America, the former laying down their arms. At the top is the Latin inscription, salus regionum septentrional: below HOSTE AD SARATOGAM IN DEDITION ACCEPTO DIE XVII OCT. MDCCLXXVII. An engraving of the above is given in Lossing's Pictorial Field Book of the Revolution, i, 83. The French also caused a bronze medal to be struck to commemorate the surrender of Burgoyne and Cornwallis, in which their own succor is made conspicuous.




Head of Liberty; the hair blown back as if by the wind, against which the goddess seems to be running, to announce to the world the tidings of her victories. On the right shoulder she bears a liberty cap.



Libertas Americana. 4 Juil : 1776.



Pallas holding in her left hand a shield on which are three fleurs de lis (the arms of France); opposed to her is a leopard (England), in the act of springing, into whose breast she is about to plunge a barbed javelin that she holds in her dexter hand. Beneath the shield is an Infant strangling with one hand a serpent, which he is holding up, whilst he stoops and chokes another found at his feet.



Non sine diis animosus infans.



17 Oct. 1777

19 Oct. 1781


This Medal belongs to the Worden Collection of the New York State Library; it is a beautiful specimen of art, and in its design highly classical. Hercules, according to the ancient mythology, was said to have strangled whilst in his cradle, two serpents which had assaulted him, having been assisted by the protection of the goddess Pallas. Infant America, like Hercules in his cradle, had destroyed two British armies. The two epochs of those exploits are marked in the Exergue 17 Oct. 1777 — Burgoyne's Surrender at Saratoga — and 19th Oct. 1781 — Cornwallis's Surrender at Yorktown, Va. The motto is from Horace, Ode 4, Book III. V. 20. The allusion is highly appropriate. — Doc. Hist., iii, 1181.




MONTREAL, 30th May, 1777. The Regiments destined for the Expedition under General Burgoyne are to leave in their respective stores, their Blanket Coats, Legging, and all Baggage that can be spared during the Summer Months; the Officers are depended on not to encumber the Service with more Baggage than shall be absolutely necessary for a Campaign where the Movements may be expected to be sudden and alert; the portion of Bateaux to each Regiment will be regulated on those principles. Three women per Company will be allowed to follow the army. The exercise of the Troops under the Lieut. General's Orders is to be confined to firing with Ball-Cartridges, Bayonets fixed, and rapidity of Movements in Marching, Evolutions, and Forming. — State of the Expedition, p. 72.




EXTRACTS from the Orders of Gen. Burgoyne were published in 1780, after the appearance of The State of the Expedition, and printed uniformly with it; the editor's principal inducement for offering them to the public being ostensibly that the latter work was incomplete without them. "It was conceived," he says, "that if Gen. Wolfe's Orders "were esteemed as models to commanding officers of Corps, as well as instructive lessons in their profession to those of an inferior rank, Gen. Burgoyne's would more fully answer that description, as they relate to military transactions far more important, and to scenes infinitely more interesting to the public. Beside that, the author of them is known to add to the knowledge and experience of the General all the exterior graces and refinement of the scholar and the writer,"




From Griswold's Curiosities of American Literature.




Said Burgoyne to his men, as they passed in review,

Tullalo, tullalo, tullalo, boys!

These rebels their course very quickly will rue,

And fly as the leaves 'fore the autumn tempest flew,

When him who is your leader they know, boys!

They with men have now to deal,

And we soon will make them feel,

Tullalo, tullalo, tullalo, boys!

That a loyal Briton's arm and a loyal Briton's steel

Can put to flight a rebel as quick as other foe, boys!

Tullalo, tullalo, tullalo—

Tullalo, tullalo, tullalo-o-o-o, boys!


As to Sa-ra-tog' he came, thinking how to jo the game,

Tullalo, tullalo, tullalo, boys !

He began to see the grubs, in the branches of his fame.

He began to have the trembles left a flash should be the flame,

For which he had agreed his perfume to forego, boys!

No lack of skill, but fates,

Shall make us yield to Gates,

Tullalo, tullalo, tullalo, boys !

The devil may have leagued, as you know, with the States!

But we never will be beat by any mortal foe, boys !

Tullalo, tullalo, tullalo—

Tullalo, tullalo, tullalo-o-o-o boys.




When Jack the king's commander


Was going to his duty,

Through all the crowd he smiled and bow'd

To every blooming beauty.


The city rung with feats he'd done

In Portugal and Flanders,

And all the town thought he'd be crown'd

The first of Alexanders.


To Hampton Court he first repairs

To kiss great George's hand, first

Then to harrangue on ftate affairs

Before he left the land, sirs.


The Lower Houfe sat mute as mouse

To hear his grand oration;

And all the peers, with loudest cheers,

Proclaimed him to the nation.


Then off he went to Canada,

Next to Ticonderoga,

And quitting those away he goes,

Straightway to Saratoga,


With great parade his march he made

To gain his wilsed for station.

While far and wide his minions hied,

To spread his Proclamation.


To such as staid he offers made

Of "pardon on submission;

But savage bands should waste the lands

Of all in opposition."


But ah, the cruel fates of war!

This boafted son of Britian,

When mounting his triumphal car

With sudden fear was smitten.


The sons of Freedom gathered round,

His hostile bands confounded,

And when they'd fain have turn'd their back

They found themselves surrounded!


In vain they fought, in vain they fled.

Their chief, humane and tender.

To save the rest soon thought it best

His forces to surrender.


Brave St. Clair when he first retired

Knew what the fates portended;

And Arnold and heroic Gates

His conduct have defended.


Thus may America's brave sons

With honor be rewarded,

And be the fate of all her foes.

The fame as here recorded. G. of H.





Come unto me ye heroes,

Whose hearts are true and bold.

Who value more your honour

Than others do their gold;

Give ear unto my story,

And I the truth will tell

Concerning many a soldier.

Who for his country fell.


Burgoyne, the king's commander,

From Canada set sail

With full eight thousand reg'lars,

He thought he could not fail;

With Indians and Canadians,

And his curled Tory crew,

On board his fleet of shipping

He up the Champlain flew.


Before Ticonderoga,

The first day of July,

Appear'd his ships and army.

And we did them espy.

Their motions we observed


Full well both night and day.

And our brave boys prepared

To have a bloody fray.

Our garrison they viewed them.

As straight their troops did land.

And when St Clair, our chieftain.

The fact did understand.

That they the Mount Defiance

Were bent to fortify.

He found we must surrender,

Or else prepare to die.


The fifth day of July, then,

He order'd a retreat.

And when next morn we started,

Burgoyne thought we were beat;

And closely he pursued us,

Till when near Hubbardton,

Our rear guards were defeated.

He thought the country won.


And when 'twas told in Congress,

That we our forts had left.

To Albany retreated,

Of all the North bereft,

Brave General Gates they sent us.

Our fortunes to retrieve.

And him with shouts of gladness.

The army did receive.


Where first the Mohawk's waters

Do in the funlhine play.

For Herkimer's brave soldiers

Sellinger ambush'd lay;

And them he there defeated.

But soon he had his due.

And feared by Brooks and Arnold,

He to the North withdrew.


To take the stores and cattle

That we had gather'd then,

Burgoyne sent a detachment

Of fifteen hundred men;

By Baum they were commanded.

To Bennington they went;

To plunder and to murder

Was fully their intent.


But little did they know then,

With whom they had to deal;

It was not quite so easy.

Our stores and flocks to steal;

Bold Starke would give them only

A portion of his lcad;

With half his crew ere sunset

Baum lay among the dead.


The nineteenth of September,

The morning cold and clear,

Brave Gates rode through our army

Each soldier's heart to cheer;

"Burgoyne," he cried "advances,

But we will never fly,

No — rather than surrender,

We'll fight him till we die."


The news was quickly brought us,

The enemy was near,

And all along our lines then.

There was no fign of fear;

It was above Stillwater

We met at noon that day.

And every one expected

to see a bloody fray.


Six hours the battle lasted,

Each heart was true as gold,

The British fought like lions,

And we like Yankees bold;

The leaves with blood were crimson.

And then brave Gates did cry —

"'Tis diamond now cut diamond!

We'll beat them, boys, or die."


The darkness soon approaching,

It forced us to retreat

Into our lines till morning,

Which made them think us beat;

But ere the sun was risen,

They saw before their eyes,

Us ready to engage them,

Which did them much surprise.


Of fighting they seem'd weary,

Therefore to work they go

Their thousand dead to bury.

And breastworks up to throw;

With grape and bombs intending

Our army to destroy,

Or from our works our forces

By stratagem decoy.


The seventh day of October,

The British tried again, —

Shells from their cannons throwing

Which fell on us like rain, —

To drive us from our stations

That they might thus retreat;

For now Burgoyne saw plainly

He never us could beat.


But vain was his endeavour

Our men to terrify;

Though death was all around us.

Not one of us would fly.

But when an hour we'd fought them,

And they began to yield,

Along our lines the cry ran

"The next blow wins the field!"


Great God, who guides their battles,

Whose cause is just and true,

Inspired our bold commander

The course he should pursue.

He order'd Arnold forward,

And Brooks to follow on;

The enemy were routed !

Our liberty was won !


Then, burning all their luggage.

They fled with haste and fear,

Burgoyne with all his forces

To Saratogue did steer;

And Gates our brave commander.

Soon after him did hie,

Resolving he would take them,

Or in the effort die.


As we came nigh the village,

We overtook the foe;

They'd burn'd each house to ashes,

Like all where'er they go.

The seventeenth of October,

They did capitulate —

Burgoyne and his proud army

Did we our prisoners make.


Now here's a health to Arnold,

And our commander Gates;

To Lincoln and to Washington,

Whom ev'ry Tory hates;

Likewise unto our Congress,

God grant it long to reign,

Our Country, Right and Justice

For ever to maintain.


Now finished is my story,

My long is at an end;

The freedom we're enjoying

We're ready to defend;

For while our cause is righteous,

Heaven nerves the soldier's arm,

And vain is their endeavour

Who strive to do us harm.




Here followeth the direful fate

His power and pride and many threats,

Of Burgoyne and his army great,

Have been brought low by fort'nate Gates

Who so proudly did display

To bend to the United States.

The terrors of despotic sway.


British prisoners by Convention, 2442

Foreigners — by Contravention, 2198

Tories sent across the Lake, 1120

Burgoyne and his suit in state, 12

Sick and wounded, bruisedd and pounded,  

Ne'er so much before confounded, 528

Prisoners of war before convention, 400

Deserters come with kind intention,  3oo

They lost at Bennington's great battle  

Where Starke's glorious arms did rattle, 1220

Kill'd in September and Oftober, 600

Ta'en by brave Brown, some drunk, some sober, 413

Slain by high famed Herkerman,  

On both flanks, on rear and van, 300

Indians, futtlers, butchers, drovers,

Enough to crowd large plains all over.

And those whom grim Death did prevent, 4413

From fighting against our continent;  

And also those who stole away,  

Left they down their arms should lay,

Abhorring that obnoxious day;

The whole make fourteen thousand men,      

Who may not with us fight again. 14,000


This is a pretty just account

Of Burgoyne's legion's whole amount.

Who came across the Northern Lakes

To desolate our happy States.

Six generals, of fame most rare;

Their brass cannons we have got all —

Fifty-six — both great and small

And ten thousand stand of arms,

To prevent all future harms;

Stores and implements complete.

Of workmanship exceeding neat;


Cover'd wagons in great plenty,

And proper harness, no ways scanty.

Among our prisoners there are

Six generals of fame mos

Six members of their parliament --

Reluctantly they seem content;

Three British lords, and Lord Balcarras,

Who came, our country free to harafs.

Two baronets of high extraftion.

 Were sorely wounded in the action.



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